Community Health Centers and Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder

Executive Summary
  1. Ehley, B. (June 29, 2020). Pandemic unleashes a spike in overdose deaths. Politico. Retrieved from https://www.politico.com/news/2020/06/29/pandemic-unleashes-a-spike-in-overdose-deaths-345183 (accessed July 17, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  2. Alter, A. and Yeager, C. (June 2020). COVID-19 Impact on US National Overdose Crisis. Overdose Detection Mapping Application Program. Retrieved from: http://www.odmap.org/Content/docs/news/2020/ODMAP-Report-June-2020.pdf (accessed July 17, 2020).

    ← Return to text

Issue Brief
  1. Ibid.

    ← Return to text

  2. Alter, A. and Yeager, C. (May 13, 2020). The Consequences of COVID-19 Overdose Epidemic. Overdose Detection Mapping Application Program. Retrieved from: http://odmap.org/Content/docs/news/2020/ODMAP-Report-May-2020.pdf (accessed July 17, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  3. Wan, W. and Long, H. (July 1, 2020). ‘Cries for help’: Drug overdoses are soaring during the coronavirus pandemic. Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2020/07/01/coronavirus-drug-overdose/ (accessed July 17, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  4. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2019). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. PEP19-5068, NSDUH Series H-54). Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/report/2018-nsduh-annual-national-report (accessed February 11, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  5. Ahmad, F. B., Rossen, L.M., and Sutton, P. (2020). Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts. National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/drug-overdose-data.htm (accessed July 17, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  6. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2019). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. PEP19-5068, NSDUH Series H-54). Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/report/2018-nsduh-annual-national-report (accessed February 11, 2020). Note: Treatment refers to services provided by specialty providers as defined in NSDUH, which includes “substance use treatment at a hospital (only as an inpatient), a drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility (as an inpatient or outpatient), or a mental health center. This NSDUH definition historically has not considered emergency rooms, private doctors’ offices, prisons or jails, and self-help groups to be specialty substance use treatment facilities.”

    ← Return to text

  7. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. “Medication and Counseling Treatment.” Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/medication-assisted-treatment/treatment (accessed February 11, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  8. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. “Medication-Assisted Treatment.” Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/medication-assisted-treatment (accessed February 11, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  9. Orgera, K. & Tolbert, J. (2019). The Opioid Epidemic and Medicaid's Role in Facilitating Access to Treatment. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/the-opioid-epidemic-and-medicaids-role-in-facilitating-access-to-treatment/ (accessed August 4, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  10. Office of the Associate Administrator, Bureau of Primary Health Care, Health Resources and Services Administration. Email communication with the authors, March 3, 2020.

    ← Return to text

  11. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services Press Office. “HHS Awards $94 Million to Health Center to Help Treat the Prescription Opioid Abuse and Heroin Epidemic in America.” Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/hepatitis/blog/2016/03/17/hhs-awards-94-million-to-health-centers-to-help-treat-the-prescription-opioid-abuse-and-heroin-epidemic-in-america.html (accessed February 26, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  12. Bureau of Primary Health Care. “Fiscal Year 2017 Access Increase in Mental Health and Substance Abuse (AIMS) Awards.” Health Resources and Services Administration. Retrieved from https://bphc.hrsa.gov/programopportunities/fundingopportunities/aims/fy2017awards/index.html (accessed February 26, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  13. Bureau of Primary Health Care. “Fiscal Year 2018 Expanding Access to Quality Substance Use Disorder and Mental Health Services (SUD-MH) Awards.” Health Resources and Services Administration. Retrieved from https://bphc.hrsa.gov/programopportunities/fundingopportunities/sud-mh/fy2018awards/index.html (accessed February 26, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  14. Bureau of Primary Health Care. “FY 2019 Integrated Behavioral Health Services (IBHS) Awards.” Health Resources and Services Administration. Retrieved from https://bphc.hrsa.gov/program-opportunities/funding-opportunities/behavioral-health/awards (accessed February 26, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  15. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. “Medication and Counseling Treatment.” Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/medication-assisted-treatment/treatment (accessed February 11, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  16. Bureau of Primary Health Care. 2016-2019 Uniform Data System. Health Resources and Services Administration. Retrieved from https://bphc.hrsa.gov/uds/datacenter.aspx and https://bphc.hrsa.gov/uds2016/datacenter.aspx?q=t5&year=2016&state=&fd= (accessed August 13, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  17. National Association of Community Health Centers. (2020). Community Health Center Chartbook. Figure 5-10. Retrieved from https://www.nachc.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Chartbook-2020-Final.pdf (accessed August 4, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  18. Corallo, B. & Tolbert, J. Impact of Coronavirus on Community Health Centers. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/impact-of-coronavirus-on-community-health-centers/ (accessed July 17, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  19. Ahmad, F. B., Rossen, L.M., and Sutton, P. (2020). Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts. National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/drug-overdose-data.htm (accessed July 17, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  20. KFF analysis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics. Multiple Cause of Death 2018 on CDC WONDER Online Database, released in 2020. Note: Data are from the Multiple Cause of Death Files, 1999-2018, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdiction through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program. Retrieved from: https://wonder.cdc.gov/mcd.html (accessed August 13, 2020). Drug overdose deaths were classified using the International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), based on the ICD-10 underlying cause-of-death codes X40–44 (unintentional), X60–64 (suicide), X85 (homicide), or Y10–Y14 (undetermined intent). Among the deaths with drug overdose as the underlying cause, the type of opioid involved is indicated by the following ICD-10 multiple cause-of-death codes: opioids (T40.0, T40.1, T40.2, T40.3, T40.4, or T40.6); natural and semisynthetic opioids (T40.2); methadone (T40.3); synthetic opioids, other than methadone (T40.4); and heroin (T40.1). Death rates are deaths per 100,000 population (crude).

    ← Return to text

  21. Rosenbaum, S., Tolbert, J., Sharac, J., Shin, P., Gunsalus, R. & Zur, J. (2018). Community Health Centers: Growing Importance in a Changing Health Care System. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/community-health-centers-growing-importance-in-a-changing-health-care-system/ (accessed July 17, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  22. Rosenbaum, S., Sharac, J., Shin, P & Tolbert, J. (2019). Community Health Center Financing: The Role of Medicaid and Section 330 Grant Funding Explained. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/community-health-center-financing-the-role-of-medicaid-and-section-330-grant-funding-explained/ (accessed August 4, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  23. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. “Medication-Assisted Treatment.” Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/medication-assisted-treatment (accessed February 11, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  24. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2019). Medicaid’s Role in the Opioid Epidemic. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/infographic/medicaids-role-in-addressing-opioid-epidemic/ (accessed August 4, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  25. Gifford et al. (2019). A View from the States: Key Medicaid Policy Changes: Results from a 50-State Medicaid Budget Survey for State Fiscal Years 2019 and 2020. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/medicaid/report/a-view-from-the-states-key-medicaid-policy-changes-results-from-a-50-state-medicaid-budget-survey-for-state-fiscal-years-2019-and-2020/ (accessed August 4, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  26. Musumeci M. & Tolbert, J. (2019). Federal Legislation to Address the Opioid Crisis: Medicaid Provisions in the SUPPORT Act. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/federal-legislation-to-address-the-opioid-crisis-medicaid-provisions-in-the-support-act/ (accessed August 4, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  27. Kaiser Family Foundation. Medicaid Behavioral Health Services Database. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/data-collection/medicaid-behavioral-health-services-database/ (accessed March 2, 2020).

    ← Return to text

  28. Corallo, B. & Tolbert, J. Impact of Coronavirus on Community Health Centers. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/impact-of-coronavirus-on-community-health-centers/ (accessed July 17, 2020).

    ← Return to text

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Headquarters: 185 Berry St., Suite 2000, San Francisco, CA 94107 | Phone 650-854-9400
Washington Offices and Barbara Jordan Conference Center: 1330 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005 | Phone 202-347-5270

www.kff.org | Email Alerts: kff.org/email | facebook.com/KaiserFamilyFoundation | twitter.com/kff

Filling the need for trusted information on national health issues, the Kaiser Family Foundation is a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, California.