Understanding the Intersection of Medicaid, Work, and COVID-19

Table 1: Own Work Status of Non-Dual, Non-SSI, Nonelderly
Adult (19-64) Medicaid Enrollees, 2018
    Total Share Who Worked
Total 22,005,000 62%
Age Under 26 4,530,000 60%*
26 – 45 10,768,000 68%
46 or older 6,707,000 53%*
Sex Male 9,259,000 67%
Female 12,746,000 58%*
Race/Ethnicity White Non-Hispanic 9,628,000 61%
Black Non-Hispanic 3,834,000 57%*
Hispanic 6,241,000 65%*
Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander 1,595,000 62%
American Indian or Alaska Native 273,000 54%
Multiple Races 434,000 62%
Education Less than High School 4,124,000 53%*
High School Graduate 8,285,000 61%*
Some College 6,374,000 66%
Bachelor’s Degree or Higher 3,222,000 65%
Geographic Region Northeast 5,138,000 63%
Midwest 4,198,000 64%
South 5,559,000 56%*
West 7,110,000 63%
Metro Status Non-Metro^ 3,104,000 62%
Metro 18,901,000 62%
Family Type One Parent with Children 2,015,000 74%*
Two Parents with Children 4,354,000 69%
Multi-generational 1,448,000 62%*
Married Adults 10,422,000 56%*
Other 3,766,000 62%*
Family Work Status Multiple Full-Time Workers in Family 3,993,000 86%
One Full-Time Worker in Family 10,096,000 73%*
Only Part-Time Workers in Family 3,316,000 82%*
No Workers in Family 4,600,000 0%*
Self-Reported Health Excellent/Very Good 10,345,000 70%
Good 7,142,000 64%*
Fair/Poor 4,517,000 38%*
NOTE: * indicates statistically significant difference from italicized reference group at p<0.05 level. ^ Non-Metro includes people in not-identified areas.
SOURCE: KFF analysis of March 2019 Current Population Survey.
Table 2: Characteristics of Working Non-Dual, Non-SSI, Nonelderly Adult (19-64) Medicaid Enrollees, 2018
Total 13,539,000
Work Status Full-Time^ 69%
Full-Time, Full-Year 49%
Full-Time, Part-Year 20%
Part-Time 31%
Part-Time, Full-Year 17%
Part-Time, Part-Year 14%
Number of Weeks Worked During the Year 1-12 weeks 8%
13-25 weeks 8%
26-38 weeks 9%
39-51 weeks 12%
52 weeks 63%
Firm Size < 50 employees 45%
50 – 99 employees 7%
100+ employees 48%
^ Full-Time is based on total number of hours worked per week (at least 35 hours). Full-time workers may be simultaneously working more than one-job. Numbers may not sum due to rounding.
SOURCE: KFF analysis of March 2019 Current Population Survey.
Table 3: Work Status and Family Work Status of Non-Dual, Non-SSI, Nonelderly Adult (19-64) Medicaid Enrollees, 2018
 

 

Total # Non-SSI, Non-Dual, Nonelderly Adult Medicaid Enrollees Family Work Status Own Work Status
No Worker in Family Full-Time Worker in Family Part-Time Worker in Family Not Working Working Full-Time Working Part-Time
US TOTAL 22,005,000 21% 64% 15% 38% 42% 19%
Alabama 205,000 39% 53% NA 59% 32% NA
Alaska 68,000 28% 63% 9% 46% 41% 13%
Arizona 656,000 19% 62% 19% 37% 42% 21%
Arkansas 195,000 26% 59% 15% 44% 42% 15%
California 4,401,000 16% 70% 14% 38% 43% 19%
Colorado 218,000 NA NA NA 29% 48% 23%
Connecticut 349,000 16% 67% 17% 34% 45% 22%
Delaware 71,000 26% 56% 18% 46% 36% 18%
District of Columbia 74,000 28% 53% 19% 40% 36% 24%
Florida 899,000 28% 62% 10% 50% 38% 12%
Georgia 434,000 32% 50% 18% 48% 30% 22%
Hawaii 112,000 25% 63% 12% 42% 36% 22%
Idaho 53,000 NA NA NA 28% 43% 29%
Illinois 848,000 19% 68% 14% 38% 45% 17%
Indiana 409,000 25% 63% 12% 39% 44% 17%
Iowa 199,000 NA 67% 24% 28% 48% 24%
Kansas 50,000 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Kentucky 415,000 27% 58% 15% 42% 42% 16%
Louisiana 438,000 26% 62% 13% 39% 47% 14%
Maine 64,000 NA 40% 24% 39% 32% 30%
Maryland 321,000 14% 65% 21% 30% 45% 25%
Massachusetts 733,000 16% 67% 17% 30% 48% 23%
Michigan 641,000 22% 61% 17% 33% 45% 22%
Minnesota 486,000 NA 62% 18% 32% 47% 21%
Mississippi 144,000 28% 60% 12% 45% 44% 11%
Missouri 248,000 35% NA NA 52% 29% 20%
Montana 87,000 19% 61% 20% 28% 41% 32%
Nebraska 55,000 17% 62% 21% 34% 44% 22%
Nevada 186,000 24% NA NA 40% 45% 15%
New Hampshire 56,000 NA 60% 22% 29% 38% 33%
New Jersey 512,000 17% 70% 14% 35% 42% 22%
New Mexico 268,000 23% 59% 18% 41% 40% 20%
New York 2,350,000 19% 70% 12% 39% 45% 16%
North Carolina 370,000 31% 56% 14% 44% 42% 14%
North Dakota 28,000 22% NA NA 37% 38% 25%
Ohio 851,000 23% 57% 20% 40% 35% 25%
Oklahoma 156,000 26% NA NA 46% 41% 12%
Oregon 344,000 16% 66% 17% 29% 49% 22%
Pennsylvania 925,000 24% 56% 20% 41% 36% 24%
Rhode Island 93,000 12% 74% NA 28% 48% 24%
South Carolina 186,000 18% 63% 19% 36% 42% 22%
South Dakota 21,000 NA 51% 30% NA NA 24%
Tennessee 324,000 23% 64% 13% 39% 46% 15%
Texas 807,000 28% 61% 11% 45% 41% 14%
Utah 95,000 NA NA NA 37% 35% 28%
Vermont 56,000 18% 67% 15% 29% 51% 20%
Virginia 349,000 24% 60% 16% 46% 37% 17%
Washington 605,000 21% 68% 12% 35% 47% 18%
West Virginia 171,000 28% 58% 14% 39% 42% 20%
Wisconsin 361,000 14% 63% 22% 27% 50% 24%
Wyoming 16,000 NA NA NA 34% 41% NA
NOTES: NA= estimate does not meet minimum standard for statistical reliability. Full-Time is based on total number of hours worked per week (at least 35 hours). Full-time workers may be simultaneously working more than one-job. Note that total number of non-elderly, non-SSI adults from survey data may be lower than state administrative data.
SOURCE: KFF analysis of March 2019 Current Population Survey.
Table 4: Reason for Not Working Among Non-Dual, Non-SSI, Nonelderly Adult (19-64) Medicaid Enrollees, 2018
  Working Ill or Disabled Caretaking Attending School Other Reason
US TOTAL 62% 11% 13% 7% 8%
Alabama 41% 23% 20% 9% NA
Alaska 54% 20% 13% NA 8%
Arizona 63% 13% 14% 5% NA
Arkansas 56% 14% 14% 7% 9%
California 62% 7% 16% 8% 7%
Colorado 71% NA NA NA NA
Connecticut 66% NA 10% 8% NA
Delaware 54% 22% 12% NA NA
District of Columbia 60% 9% 12% 7% 12%
Florida 50% 14% 18% 9% 9%
Georgia 52% 17% 16% NA NA
Hawaii 58% 10% 15% NA 11%
Idaho 72% NA 15% NA NA
Illinois 62% 11% 10% 8% 9%
Indiana 61% 13% 14% NA NA
Iowa 72% NA 12% NA NA
Kansas 76% NA NA NA NA
Kentucky 58% 20% NA NA 11%
Louisiana 61% 16% 11% NA 9%
Maine 61% NA NA NA NA
Maryland 70% NA 10% NA NA
Massachusetts 70% 9% 7% 9% 4%
Michigan 67% 9% 9% 7% 9%
Minnesota 68% 12% 8% NA NA
Mississippi 55% 15% 13% NA NA
Missouri 48% 21% 14% NA NA
Montana 72% 10% 7% 6% 5%
Nebraska 66% NA 21% NA NA
Nevada 60% 13% 15% NA NA
New Hampshire 71% NA NA NA NA
New Jersey 65% 8% 14% 8% NA
New Mexico 59% 12% 15% 6% 8%
New York 61% 9% 15% 8% 7%
North Carolina 56% 16% 13% 9% NA
North Dakota 63% NA NA NA NA
Ohio 60% 14% 12% NA 9%
Oklahoma 54% 7% 19% NA NA
Oregon 71% 7% NA NA NA
Pennsylvania 59% 12% 11% 6% 12%
Rhode Island 72% NA NA NA NA
South Carolina 64% 17% 12% NA NA
South Dakota 56% NA NA NA NA
Tennessee 61% 17% 16% NA NA
Texas 55% 14% 13% 10% 8%
Utah 63% NA 17% NA NA
Vermont 71% 11% 12% NA NA
Virginia 54% NA 14% NA NA
Washington 65% 13% 15% NA 6%
West Virginia 61% 16% 14% NA 6%
Wisconsin 73% NA NA NA NA
Wyoming 66% NA NA NA NA
NOTES: NA= estimate does not meet minimum standard for statistical reliability. Other reason includes retired, could not find work, and other reasons.
SOURCE: KFF analysis of March 2019 Current Population Survey.
Table 5: Characteristics of Working Non-Dual, Non-SSI, Nonelderly Adult (19-64) Medicaid Enrollees, 2018
  Firm Size (# Employees) Industry
<50 50-99 100+ Agriculture/
Services
Education/
Health
Professional/
Public Admin
Manufacturing Top Industry
US TOTAL 45% 7% 48% 50% 20% 17% 14% Restaurants/Food Service
Alabama NA NA 68% 30% 25% NA 30% NA
Alaska 52% NA 42% 40% 16% 19% NA NA
Arizona 43% 7% 50% 56% 18% 20% 12% Restaurants/Food Service
Arkansas 42% NA 47% 48% 25% 19% NA NA
California 49% 7% 44% 51% 18% 19% 14% Restaurants/Food Service
Colorado 46% NA 44% 50% NA 12% NA Construction
Connecticut 50% NA 41% 47% 21% 26% 10% NA
Delaware 27% NA 65% 65% 19% NA NA NA
District of Columbia 28% 11% 62% 46% 21% 35% NA Restaurants/Food Service
Florida 46% 9% 45% 60% 15% 23% 12% Restaurants/Food Service
Georgia 42% NA 57% 37% NA 22% 17% NA
Hawaii 55% 9% 36% 55% 15% 29% NA Restaurants/Food Service
Idaho 59% NA 35% 55% 17% NA NA NA
Illinois 43% 8% 48% 41% 19% 18% 21% Restaurants/Food Service
Indiana 42% NA 51% 48% 19% NA 26% NA
Iowa 40% NA 58% 42% 24% 16% 19% Religious organizations
Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Kentucky 36% NA 59% 48% 22% 19% NA Restaurants/Food Service
Louisiana 46% 7% 47% 56% 21% 13% 10% Restaurants/Food Service
Maine 44% NA 50% 46% NA NA NA NA
Maryland 40% NA 52% 52% 18% 29% NA NA
Massachusetts 37% 9% 54% 46% 30% 18% 8% Restaurants/Food Service
Michigan 45% NA 50% 46% 23% 16% 14% Restaurants/Food Service
Minnesota 50% NA 42% 43% 21% NA 21% NA
Mississippi 39% NA 57% 44% 21% 12% NA Restaurants/Food Service
Missouri 38% NA 52% 63% 23% NA NA NA
Montana 55% 8% 38% 56% 20% 16% NA Restaurants/Food Service
Nebraska 62% NA 30% 50% NA NA NA NA
Nevada 32% NA 58% 55% 15% 25% NA NA
New Hampshire 45% NA 49% 57% NA NA NA NA
New Jersey 52% NA 42% 37% 23% 16% 19% NA
New Mexico 44% 8% 48% 64% 19% 12% 10% Restaurants/Food Service
New York 47% 7% 46% 49% 25% 17% 11% Restaurants/Food Service
North Carolina 40% NA 56% 47% NA NA 26% Restaurants/Food Service
North Dakota 52% NA 42% 59% NA NA NA NA
Ohio 34% NA 60% 49% 20% 12% 19% Restaurants/Food Service
Oklahoma 47% NA 48% 62% 23% NA NA NA
Oregon 52% NA 42% 57% 16% 17% 11% Construction
Pennsylvania 38% 10% 52% 52% 30% 13% 13% Restaurants/Food Service
Rhode Island 40% NA 50% 38% 28% NA NA NA
South Carolina 50% NA 44% 39% NA 15% 16% NA
South Dakota NA 0% NA 46% NA NA NA Traveler accommodation
Tennessee 39% NA 56% 41% 18% NA 20% NA
Texas 45% NA 50% 58% 16% 15% 10% Restaurants/Food Service
Utah 55% NA 42% 45% NA NA 16% Construction
Vermont 59% NA 35% 47% 25% NA 13% NA
Virginia 40% NA 49% 66% NA 18% NA NA
Washington 45% 9% 47% 52% 12% 18% 15% Restaurants/Food Service
West Virginia 41% NA 52% 45% 20% 18% 14% Restaurants/Food Service
Wisconsin 42% NA 51% 42% 29% NA NA Restaurants/Food Service
Wyoming 47% NA 45% 60% 26% NA NA NA
NOTES: Totals may not sum to 100% due to rounding. NA= estimate does not meet minimum standard for statistical reliability. Agriculture/Services includes agriculture, construction, leisure and hospitality services, wholesale and retail trade. Education/Health includes education and health services. Professional/Public Administration includes finance, professional and business services, information, and public administration. Manufacturing includes mining, manufacturing, and transportation and utilities.
SOURCE: KFF analysis of March 2019 Current Population Survey.
Table 6: Share Working Among Non-Dual, Non-SSI, Nonelderly Adult (19-64) Medicaid Enrollees
by Age, Sex, and Race/Ethnicity, 2018
Share Working Within Each Age Group Share Working Within Each Sex Share Working Within Each Race/Ethnicity Group
Age
19-25
Age
26-45
Age 46+ Women Men White,
Non-Hispanic
Black, Non-Hispanic Hispanic Other
Non-Hispanic
US TOTAL 60% 68% 53% 58% 67% 61% 57% 65% 61%
Alabama NA 49% 26% 46% 32% 39% 42% 50% NA
Alaska 47% 62% 50% 52% 57% 52% NA 62% 58%
Arizona 63% 68% 56% 59% 69% 57% NA 69% 60%
Arkansas 47% 65% 45% 54% 59% 58% 47% 69% NA
California 61% 68% 55% 54% 73% 59% 49% 66% 60%
Colorado 58% 88% 55% 70% 73% 81% NA 60% NA
Connecticut 59% 69% 68% 63% 71% 67% 66% 66% 64%
Delaware 77% 57% 40% 55% 54% 60% 53% 41% NA
District of Columbia 48% 68% 54% 58% 64% 58% 60% 66% NA
Florida 40% 60% 41% 44% 59% 49% 49% 56% NA
Georgia 72% 59% NA 53% 50% 43% 54% 69% 64%
Hawaii 64% 59% 52% 50% 65% 57% NA 54% 58%
Idaho 70% 74% 69% 60% 87% 72% NA 77% NA
Illinois 71% 64% 51% 63% 61% 70% 57% 54% 57%
Indiana 78% 62% 40% 58% 66% 62% 56% 54% 77%
Iowa 57% 77% 72% 68% 77% 73% 69% 62% 82%
Kansas 89% 82% NA 71% 88% 78% NA 75% NA
Kentucky 65% 65% 38% 55% 62% 57% 59% 88% NA
Louisiana 58% 69% 48% 59% 65% 59% 61% 65% 81%
Maine 73% 65% NA 74% 45% 62% NA 19% 79%
Maryland 79% 65% 70% 70% 70% 68% 65% 78% 85%
Massachusetts 62% 76% 68% 71% 70% 73% 60% 69% 69%
Michigan 63% 76% 53% 70% 63% 64% 67% 80% 78%
Minnesota 60% 79% 56% 67% 70% 67% 71% 75% 68%
Mississippi 28% 73% 45% 53% 59% 65% 49% NA NA
Missouri 46% 67% 27% 44% 54% 55% 23% 90% NA
Montana 67% 83% 61% 71% 73% 73% 90% NA 61%
Nebraska 72% 67% 57% 62% 74% 72% 81% 60% NA
Nevada 54% 71% 48% 53% 70% 55% 58% 64% 66%
New Hampshire 83% 76% 55% 66% 79% 65% 64% NA NA
New Jersey 66% 67% 61% 59% 74% 65% 62% 63% 70%
New Mexico 55% 64% 55% 60% 59% 65% 89% 61% 48%
New York 54% 65% 61% 57% 66% 61% 59% 63% 61%
North Carolina 59% 63% 38% 50% 68% 50% 59% 62% 59%
North Dakota 78% 59% 58% 53% 82% 71% 53% NA 50%
Ohio 61% 65% 50% 58% 63% 57% 73% 50% 53%
Oklahoma 58% 59% 37% 52% 57% 53% NA 61% 58%
Oregon 67% 79% 59% 66% 77% 72% 73% 81% 56%
Pennsylvania 65% 68% 44% 59% 60% 58% 57% 77% NA
Rhode Island 73% 75% 64% 71% 73% 68% 79% 73% 84%
South Carolina 68% 72% 40% 65% 62% 64% 63% NA NA
South Dakota NA 75% NA 48% 70% 69% NA NA 50%
Tennessee 39% 68% 62% 58% 66% 64% 50% 70% NA
Texas 52% 69% 34% 51% 62% 51% 48% 61% NA
Utah 69% 79% 31% 52% 79% 60% NA 83% NA
Vermont 66% 78% 61% 68% 74% 71% 82% NA 68%
Virginia 47% 55% 57% 51% 59% 48% 58% 66% 57%
Washington 70% 72% 50% 59% 72% 57% 66% 75% 78%
West Virginia 62% 65% 55% 58% 65% 61% 66% 85% NA
Wisconsin 77% 74% 68% 68% 83% 67% 85% 84% 87%
Wyoming 74% 76% NA 64% 71% 64% NA 77% 62%
NOTES: NA= estimate does not meet minimum standard for statistical reliability.
SOURCE: KFF analysis of March 2019 Current Population Survey.
Table 7: Share Working Among Non-Dual, Non-SSI, Nonelderly Adult Medicaid Enrollees
by Education Level and Self-Reported Health Status, 2018
Share Working Within Each Education Level Share Working Within Each Health Status Group
< High School High School Grad Some College BA or Higher Fair/Poor Good Excellent/ Very Good
US TOTAL 53% 61% 66% 65% 38% 64% 70%
Alabama NA 46% 61% 34% 31% 35% 57%
Alaska NA 53% 68% 53% 38% 46% 73%
Arizona 62% 63% 67% 58% 42% 65% 72%
Arkansas 53% 53% 67% 50% NA 64% 73%
California 59% 63% 63% 66% 39% 62% 70%
Colorado 58% 61% 80% 83% 46% 87% 82%
Connecticut 64% 64% 77% 58% 70% 71% 63%
Delaware 41% 49% 63% 65% 58% 38% 69%
District of Columbia 43% 59% 59% 81% 50% 57% 65%
Florida 42% 54% 49% 52% 38% 55% 55%
Georgia 43% 47% 71% 40% 25% 69% 67%
Hawaii NA 55% 58% 74% 44% 52% 66%
Idaho 60% 67% 77% 83% NA 77% 75%
Illinois 47% 66% 67% 58% 43% 71% 64%
Indiana 48% 58% 70% 74% 28% 67% 72%
Iowa 62% 74% 71% 78% 59% 62% 81%
Kansas NA 64% 95% NA NA 89% 78%
Kentucky 53% 52% 64% 70% 36% 66% 71%
Louisiana 50% 60% 67% 68% 24% 64% 77%
Maine NA 54% 65% NA NA 80% 82%
Maryland 74% 73% 56% 77% 59% 73% 72%
Massachusetts 60% 72% 72% 72% 46% 76% 76%
Michigan 43% 68% 73% 71% 46% 66% 79%
Minnesota 71% 70% 70% 59% NA 87% 75%
Mississippi 45% 52% 62% 70% 31% 62% 64%
Missouri NA 46% 63% NA NA 62% 58%
Montana 57% 67% 72% 90% 49% 72% 82%
Nebraska 55% 68% 75% NA 42% 66% 78%
Nevada 64% 58% 58% 66% 55% 68% 54%
New Hampshire 57% 63% 83% 70% 62% 64% 79%
New Jersey NA 64% 66% 73% 46% 61% 70%
New Mexico 50% 52% 69% 83% 41% 57% 67%
New York 49% 60% 69% 66% 29% 60% 71%
North Carolina 47% 58% 59% 60% 36% 66% 60%
North Dakota 47% 72% 64% NA 47% 69% 68%
Ohio 40% 64% 61% 70% 34% 66% 70%
Oklahoma NA 59% 70% NA NA 51% 63%
Oregon 49% 75% 73% 77% 62% 68% 76%
Pennsylvania 51% 62% 62% 58% 43% 61% 66%
Rhode Island 65% 65% 78% 79% NA 77% 73%
South Carolina 58% 68% 64% NA NA 80% 71%
South Dakota NA 65% 65% NA NA 54% 79%
Tennessee 35% 62% 67% 69% 44% 67% 66%
Texas 59% 53% 57% 50% 34% 60% 62%
Utah 63% 60% 59% 73% 27% 68% 81%
Vermont 49% 72% 71% 77% 50% 67% 78%
Virginia 48% 57% 50% 61% 29% 49% 79%
Washington 57% 68% 66% 66% 37% 54% 78%
West Virginia 50% 60% 69% 59% 40% 64% 75%
Wisconsin 72% 67% 86% 64% 55% 76% 78%
Wyoming 68% 73% 53% 79% NA 81% 70%
NOTES: NA= estimate does not meet minimum standard for statistical reliability.
SOURCE: KFF analysis of March 2019 Current Population Survey.
Issue Brief