Status of State Medicaid Expansion Decisions: Interactive Map
Published: May 27, 2020
To date, 37 states (including DC) have adopted the Medicaid expansion and 14 states have not adopted the expansion. Current status for each state is based on KFF tracking and analysis of state expansion activity.
Key States with Expansion Activity
|States||Summary of Activity|
|United States||Coverage under the Medicaid expansion became effective January 1, 2014 in all states that have adopted the Medicaid expansion except for the following: Michigan (4/1/2014), New Hampshire (8/15/2014), Pennsylvania (1/1/2015), Indiana (2/1/2015), Alaska (9/1/2015), Montana (1/1/2016), Louisiana (7/1/2016), Virginia (1/1/2019), Maine (1/10/2019 with coverage retroactive to 7/2/2018), Idaho (1/1/2020), Utah (1/1/2020), and Nebraska (to be determined).
Arizona, Arkansas, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Ohio, and Utah have approved Section 1115 waivers to operate their Medicaid expansion programs in ways not otherwise allowed under federal law. Arkansas continues to operate its expansion program through a waiver, however, the waiver provisions related to the work requirement and reduction of retroactive eligibility were set aside by court on March 27, 2019.
|STATES THAT HAVE ADOPTED AND IMPLEMENTED EXPANSION|
|Idaho||Idaho voters approved a ballot measure in November 2018 that requires the state to submit a state plan amendment (SPA) to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to implement the Medicaid expansion within 90 days of approval of the measure. Idaho submitted a SPA for the Medicaid expansion in February 2019. On April 9, 2019, Idaho Governor Little signed a bill passed by the legislature that makes changes to the Medicaid expansion program approved by voters. The legislation directs the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare to seek waivers for multiple changes, including to add a work requirement as a condition of eligibility for coverage. The legislation specifies that if the waivers are not approved by January 1, 2020, then all individuals up to 138% FPL will be enrolled in Medicaid.
Enrollment in Medicaid coverage under expansion began on November 1, 2019, and coverage for these enrollees began on January 1, 2020. The state is still working with CMS to secure approvals of four waivers that it submitted at direction from the April legislation.
|Kentucky||On March 27, 2019, the court set aside the reapproved Kentucky HEALTH waiver. In its previous decision, the court had set aside the original waiver approval, and on November 20, 2018, CMS reapproved the Kentucky HEALTH waiver with minor technical changes. Unless and until HHS issues another approval that passes legal muster or prevails on appeal, the work requirement, monthly premiums up to 4% of income, coverage lockouts for failure to timely renew eligibility or timely report a change in circumstances, heightened cost-sharing for non-emergency ER use, and elimination of retroactive eligibility and non-emergency medical transportation will not be implemented. The separate “institution for mental disease” substance use disorder payment waiver was not set aside and was allowed to go into effect. Kentucky’s expansion program was originally implemented and continues to operate under SPA authority. On November 5, 2019, Democratic Attorney General Andy Beshear defeated incumbent Republican Matt Bevin in Kentucky’s gubernatorial race. On December 16, 2019, Beshear signed an executive order rescinding the Kentucky HEALTH waiver.|
|Maine||Maine implemented expansion on January 10, 2019. Maine adopted the Medicaid expansion through a ballot initiative in November 2017. After former Governor LePage delayed implementation of the expansion for months, new Governor Mills signed an executive order on her first day in office (January 3, 2019) directing the Maine Department of Health and Human Services to begin expansion implementation and provide coverage to those eligible retroactive to July 2018. CMS approved the state’s plan retroactive to July 2, 2018 on April 3, 2019.|
|Montana||On April 18, 2019, the Montana Legislature passed a bill (which was signed by Governor Bullock on May 9, 2019) to continue the state’s expansion program with significant changes until 2025. This action came after Montana voters voted down a measure on the November 2018 ballot that would have extended the Medicaid expansion beyond the June 30, 2019 sunset date and raised taxes on tobacco products to finance the expansion. The approved bill directs the state to seek federal waiver authority to make several changes to the existing expansion program, including adding a work requirement as a condition of eligibility and increasing the premiums required of many beneficiaries. Per the legislation, the state submitted a Section 1115 waiver proposal with these changes to CMS on August 30, 2019 and the request is pending.|
|Utah||Since Utah voters approved a November 2018 ballot measure to adopt the ACA Medicaid expansion up to 138% of the FPL, the state legislature has taken steps to roll back the full expansion. The state enacted a law in February 2019 that amended the voter-approved ballot measure, requiring the state to submit a series of Section 1115 waiver requests limiting the expansion to 100% FPL, first at its regular matching rate and then requesting the enhanced federal matching rate of 90%. The first waiver, the “Bridge Plan,” was approved in March 2019, and allowed the state to implement a coverage expansion to 100% FPL beginning April 1, 2019, at the state’s regular matching rate. In accordance with the legislation, the state also submitted to CMS its “Per Capita Cap” waiver on July 31, 2019 and subsequently its “Fallback Plan” waiver on November 4, 2019. On December 23, 2019, CMS approved the Fallback Plan waiver’s request to expand Medicaid eligibility to 138% FPL, effective January 1, 2020. CMS also approved several other requests from this waiver, including work requirements for the newly-expanded adult Medicaid population, but did not approve the request to cap enrollment. CMS is continuing to review numerous other provisions in the Fallback Plan waiver.|
|Virginia||The Virginia General Assembly approved Medicaid expansion as part of its FY 2019-2020 budget on May 30, 2018; Governor Northam signed the budget into law on June 7, 2018. Expansion coverage became effective under state plan amendment (SPA) authority on January 1, 2019 after enrollment began on November 1, 2018.|
|STATES THAT HAVE ADOPTED BUT NOT YET IMPLEMENTED EXPANSION|
|Nebraska||Nebraska voters approved a Medicaid expansion ballot measure in November 2018 and the state submitted a state plan amendment (SPA) for the expansion on April 1, 2019. The SPA delays Medicaid expansion implementation until October 1, 2020 to allow time for the state to seek a Section 1115 waiver to implement expansion with program elements that differ from what is allowed under federal law. On December 12, 2019, the state submitted this waiver to CMS for review. On April 10, 2020, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services announced that CMS would not finish approval of this waiver ahead of the planned implementation date. The Department plans to implement expansion on October 1, 2020 without the program elements from the 1115 waiver, with applications beginning August 1, 2020.|
|STATES THAT HAVE NOT ADOPTED EXPANSION|
|Florida||A recent Medicaid expansion ballot initiative effort was delayed by its organizing committee to the 2022 ballot. On January 14, 2020, Democratic legislators introduced bills in both the state House and Senate to put a constitutional amendment expanding Medicaid to a statewide vote, but these are likely to fail in the Republican-controlled legislature.|
|Georgia||On March 27, 2019, Republican Governor Brian Kemp signed The Patients First Act, which aimed to address challenges in healthcare including the state’s high uninsured rates. The bill authorized the Georgia Department of Community Health to submit a Section 1115 waiver request that could include a Medicaid expansion limited to coverage up to 100% FPL. The bill allocated funds which the Department used to contract with Deloitte to develop this waiver request as well as potential Section 1332 waiver requests. In accordance with the March legislation, on October 31, 2019, Kemp released a proposed 1332 waiver seeking to implement a reinsurance program and make other changes to marketplace coverage. On November 4, 2019 his office released a proposed 1115 waiver called Georgia Pathways to Coverage which would expand Medicaid coverage to 100% FPL and requests the enhanced ACA funding match despite a July statement from CMS indicating that it will not provide this match for partial expansions. Georgia Pathways also includes work requirements, premiums, and copayments. The state submitted this waiver to CMS on December 23, 2019.|
|Kansas||Medicaid expansion passed in the Kansas legislature in 2017, but was vetoed by Republican Sam Brownback, the Governor at the time. In 2018, Democratic Governor Laura Kelly ran for office on the issue of expansion, but Republican leaders in the 2019 session blocked her expansion bill from a vote in the Senate despite its passage in the House on March 20, 2019. On October 23, 2019, Republican Senate Majority Leader Jim Denning proposed his own version of Medicaid expansion, which the Senate Select Committee on Healthcare Access recommended get further study in the 2020 legislative session. On January 9, 2020, Kelly and Denning announced a bipartisan Medicaid expansion bill that compromises between the 2017 bill vetoed by Brownback, the 2019 bill adopted by the House, and Denning’s October plan. The bill would expand Medicaid by January 1, 2021 and would fund the state’s share of the cost with a capped surcharge on hospitals. In addition to provisions such as premiums and a work referral program, the bill also directs the state to apply for waivers that would transition those between 100-138% of the FPL from Medicaid expansion coverage to Marketplace coverage, although the expansion is not contingent on approval of these waivers. The Senate bill is co-sponsored by 11 Republicans and 11 Democrats, and House members from both parties have expressed their support as well. Republican President Susan Wagle stalled the bill’s progress, however, by pledging not to allow a vote on expansion until an anti-abortion bill passed the House. The 2020 legislative session ended with no further progress on the bill after Democrats tried to force a vote on Medicaid expansion and failed on May 21, 2020.|
|Mississippi||Medicaid expansion was a key issue in the 2019 Mississippi gubernatorial election, dividing candidates in both the August 27 Republican primary and in the November 5 general election. Republican Lieutenant Governor Tate Reeves, who adamantly opposes expansion, ultimately won both races, making it unlikely that the state will take up expansion in the next four years.|
|Missouri||On September 4, 2019, Healthcare for Missouri announced its commitment to putting Medicaid expansion on the state’s November 2020 ballot. On May 1, 2020, the campaign committee submitted nearly 350,000 signatures to the MO Secretary of State, and the Secretary verified the petition as complete on May 22, 2020. In Missouri, ballot initiative questions are automatically placed on the November general election ballot unless the Governor intervenes; on May 26, 2020, Republican Governor Mike Parson announced that the Medicaid expansion question would appear on the August 4, 2020 primary ballot.|
|North Carolina||On June 28, 2019, Democratic Governor Roy Cooper vetoed the state budget proposed by the Republican-controlled legislature largely over the issue of Medicaid expansion. On September 11, 2019, Republican House Speaker Tim Moore held a successful veto override vote with 64 of the House’s 120 members present. The budget was then referred to the Senate, where one Democratic vote is required for an override (versus the seven House votes required had all members been present). Republicans in the Senate were unable to secure the votes necessary to override the veto before the legislature adjourned its session on October 31, 2019 without a new budget. On September 18, 2019, the House Health Committee passed House Bill 655, a Medicaid expansion bill with work requirements and premiums; however, the House did not schedule any votes on this bill before the October 31 session adjournment. Neither House Bill 655 nor the budget veto override vote moved forward during a limited legislative session on January 14, 2020. No further votes will be held until the state’s 2020 legislative session begins on April 28, 2020, and the state will continue operating on the previous year’s budget.|
|Oklahoma||On March 6, 2020 the Oklahoma Health Care Authority submitted a SPA to expand Medicaid as directed by Republican Governor Kevin Stitt. On April 20, 2020, the Authority submitted to CMS its Healthy Adult Opportunity waiver to change the financing structure of the program and impose premiums and work requirements on expansion enrollees. Stitt planned for expansion coverage under the SPA would begin as early as July 1, 2020, contingent on the Oklahoma state legislature passing a bill this session to fund the state’s share of expansion costs; however, on May 21, 2020 he vetoed a Senate bill that would pay for expansion with an increased hospital fee, voicing concern that the bill only partially funded expansion and only for the first year. He did not veto a companion bill that would further fund expansion with funds from state reserve accounts. The Legislature declined to override Stitt’s veto of the first bill. Expansion coverage could still begin July 1, 2020, although the source of funding is currently unknown.
Separately, the group Yes on 802 began circulating an expansion ballot initiative on July 31, 2019 which, if passed, would require expansion coverage to begin no later than July 1, 2021 and would not allow any restrictions on eligibility or enrollment. On January 10, 2020 the Oklahoma Secretary of State verified the petition as complete. The expansion question will appear on the June 30, 2020 primary ballot, as determined by Stitt.
|South Dakota||In May 2019, the group South Dakota Community Action submitted a Medicaid expansion ballot initiative measure to the state’s Legislative Research Council for review. On June 3, 2019, the Council responded that the measure satisfied the process for review and directed South Dakota Community Action to re-submit the final measure for a fiscal estimate; the initiative has not progressed since. On April 17, 2020, the South Dakota Democratic Party released a statement urging Republican Governor Kristi Noem to consider expanding Medicaid via Executive Order to address the COVID-19 pandemic by increasing access to health care.|
|Wisconsin||Wisconsin covers adults up to 100% FPL in Medicaid but did not adopt the ACA expansion.|
|Wyoming||On November 12, 2019, the Wyoming legislature’s Joint Revenue Committee voted to move forward a Medicaid expansion bill to the full legislature. If passed, the bill would allow the Governor to direct state agencies to consider options for Medicaid expansion and then, if expansion is recommended, to direct the Health Department to submit an expansion plan to CMS with the Legislature’s approval. At the beginning of the legislature’s 2020 session on February 10, 2020, however, the House voted against including the bill on its consent agenda. A bill filed on February 13, 2020 by Republican Representative Pat Sweeney to put a constitutional amendment to expand Medicaid on the November 2020 ballot also failed in the House on February 14, 2020. The Legislature may revisit the topic, however: at a meeting focused on addressing the COVID-19 crisis on May 8, 2020 lawmakers voted to make Medicaid expansion a priority discussion topic for the Joint Revenue Committee in upcoming months.|
Medicaid Expansion Resources
- The Effects of Medicaid Expansion under the ACA: Updated Findings from a Literature Review
- An Overview of State Approaches to Adopting the Medicaid Expansion
- The Coverage Gap: Uninsured Poor Adults in States that Do Not Expand Medicaid
- Implications of the ACA Medicaid Expansion: A Look at the Data and Evidence
- Medicaid Waiver Tracker: Approved and Pending Section 1115 Waivers by State
- “Partial Medicaid Expansion” with ACA Enhanced Matching Funds: Implications for Financing and Coverage
- Explaining Stewart v. Azar: Implications of the Court’s Decision on Kentucky’s Medicaid Waiver
- Data Note: Data Do Not Support Relationship Between Medicaid Expansion Status and Home and Community-Based Services Waiver Waiting Lists
- The Uninsured: A Primer – Key Facts about Health Insurance and the Uninsured Under the Affordable Care Act
- Key Facts about the Uninsured Population
- Medicaid State Fact Sheets