How the Pandemic Continues to Shape Medicaid Priorities: Results from an Annual Medicaid Budget Survey for State Fiscal Years 2022 and 2023

KFF commissioned Health Management Associates (HMA) to survey Medicaid directors in all 50 states and the District of Columbia to identify and track trends in Medicaid spending, enrollment, and policy making. This is the 22nd annual survey, each conducted at the beginning of the state fiscal year (FY) from FY 2002 through FY 2023. Additionally, ten mid-fiscal year surveys were conducted during state fiscal years 2002-2004, 2009-2013, 2021, and 2022 when a large share of states were considering mid-year Medicaid policy changes due to state budget and revenue shortfalls and/or the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings from previous surveys are referenced in this report when they help to highlight current trends. Archived copies of past reports are available on the following page.

The KFF/HMA Medicaid survey on which this report is based was sent to state Medicaid directors in June 2022. The survey instrument (in Appendix) was designed to document policy actions in place in FY 2022 and implemented or planned for FY 2023 (which began for most states on July 1, 2022).1 The survey captures information consistent with previous surveys, particularly for provider payment rates, benefits, and managed care, to provide some trend information. Each year, questions are added or revised to address current issues.

Medicaid directors and staff provided data for this report in response to a written survey and a follow-up telephone interview. Overall, 49 states responded in mid-summer of 2022, though response rates for specific questions varied.2 Forty-eight states participated in a follow-up telephone interview, conducted between July and September 2022.3 The telephone discussions are an important part of the survey to ensure complete and accurate responses and to record additional context for and complexities of state actions.

The survey does not attempt to catalog all Medicaid policies in place for each state. This report highlights certain policies in place in state Medicaid programs in FY 2022 and policy changes implemented or planned for FY 2023. Experience has shown that adopted policies are sometimes delayed or not implemented for reasons related to legal, fiscal, administrative, systems, or political considerations, or due to delays in approval from CMS. Policy changes under consideration without a definite decision to implement are not included in the survey. States completed this survey in mid-summer of 2022, as COVID-19 deaths started to rise after a low in April 2022, due to the highly transmissible Omicron variant, waning vaccine immunity, and relatively low booster uptake. Given differences in the financing structure of their programs, the U.S. territories were not included in this analysis.

Future Outlook: Key Opportunities, Challenges, and Priorities in FY 2023 and Beyond and Conclusion Appendix

KFF Headquarters: 185 Berry St., Suite 2000, San Francisco, CA 94107 | Phone 650-854-9400
Washington Offices and Barbara Jordan Conference Center: 1330 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005 | Phone 202-347-5270 | Email Alerts: | |

The independent source for health policy research, polling, and news, KFF is a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, California.