The COVID-19 Outbreak and Food Production Workers: Who is at Risk?
This analysis is based on KFF analysis of the 2018 American Community Survey (ACS), 1-year file. The ACS includes a 1% sample of the US population; the subset of food production workers examined in this data note includes over 33,000 observations. We define the food production workforce as all individuals who earned at least $1,000 during the year and indicated that their job was in one of the food processing industry codes listed below. We include only adults age 18 and up in the analysis.
|Table 1: Weighted and Unweighted Counts by Industry|
|Industry Code||Industry Description||Weighted Counts||Unweighted Counts|
|180||Animal production and aquaculture||427,134||4,970|
|1180||Animal slaughtering and processing||521,694||4,372|
|1280||Seafood and other miscellaneous foods, n.e.c.||253,120||2,365|
|1270||Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakeries||220,484||1,872|
|1070||Animal food, grain and oilseed milling||176,690||1,858|
|1170||Dairy product manufacturing||164,959||1,771|
|1090||Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing||173,583||1,605|
|1080||Sugar and confectionery products||95,651||899|
|1290||Not specified food industries||32,206||289|
We roll up food production industries related to animal production and processing into one category based on the following categories: animal production and aquaculture; animal slaughtering and processing; animal food, grain, and oilseed milling, and dairy product manufacturing. Similarly, we include beverage manufacturing; bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakers; sugar and confectionary productions; and not specified food industries in the food manufacturing category.
The ACS asks respondents about their health insurance coverage at the time of the survey. Respondents may report having more than one type of coverage; however, we sort individuals into only one category of insurance coverage based on a hierarchy of coverage (detailed here).
The ACS divides the United States into Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs), or geographic areas representing at least 100,000 people. PUMA’s vary in size based on population density. The USDA Economic Research Service defines metro and non-metro areas. Using the USDA method, we identify 80% of the PUMAs as solely in non-metro areas, 9% containing metro areas, and 12% containing both metro and non-metro areas. We categorize the PUMAs containing both metro and non-metro areas based on where the majority of the population lives. Using this approach, we categorize a total of 14% of the population living in a PUMA was classified as a non-metro area.