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Profile of Medicare Beneficiaries by Race and Ethnicity: A Chartpack

Table 1: Percent of State Medicare Beneficiary Populations, by Race/Ethnicity, 2014
State Number of Beneficiaries Percent White Percent Black Percent Hispanic Percent Other Race/Ethnicity
United States Total 50,546,000 76% 10% 8% 5%
Alabama 850,000 77% 21% N/A N/A
Alaska 71,000 71% N/A N/A 24%
Arizona 1,031,000 71% 4% N/A N/A
Arkansas 560,000 82% 14% N/A N/A
California 5,272,000 57% 6% 20% 16%
Colorado 772,000 85% 4% 8% 3%
Connecticut 521,000 82% 8% 7% N/A
Delaware 173,000 79% 16% N/A N/A
District of Columbia 77,000 25% 68% 5% N/A
Florida 3,804,000 71% 9% 17% 2%
Georgia 1,431,000 72% 24% N/A 2%
Hawaii 231,000 25% N/A 4% 70%
Idaho 212,000 93% N/A 4% N/A
Illinois 1,981,000 75% 13% 6% 5%
Indiana 1,135,000 92% 6% N/A N/A
Iowa 518,000 97% 2% N/A N/A
Kansas 444,000 86% 4% N/A 6%
Kentucky 843,000 94% 5% N/A N/A
Louisiana 635,000 68% 26% N/A N/A
Maine 273,000 96% N/A N/A N/A
Maryland 865,000 64% 25% N/A 7%
Massachusetts 1,105,000 82% 6% 7% 6%
Michigan 1,743,000 84% 12% 2% 2%
Minnesota 848,000 92% 1% N/A 5%
Mississippi 495,000 66% 31% N/A N/A
Missouri 1,050,000 87% 8% N/A 3%
Montana 182,000 97% N/A N/A N/A
Nebraska 306,000 95% N/A N/A N/A
Nevada 423,000 69% 7% 10% 13%
New Hampshire 226,000 96% N/A N/A 3%
New Jersey 1,417,000 73% 12% 9% 6%
New Mexico 355,000 64% N/A 28% N/A
New York 3,148,000 71% 11% 11% 8%
North Carolina 1,641,000 74% 20% 2% N/A
North Dakota 105,000 95% N/A N/A N/A
Ohio 2,181,000 86% 11% N/A N/A
Oklahoma 600,000 83% 7% N/A 8%
Oregon 764,000 90% N/A 3% 6%
Pennsylvania 2,375,000 85% 9% 3% 2%
Rhode Island 174,000 88% 3% 5% N/A
South Carolina 834,000 76% 22% N/A N/A
South Dakota 143,000 94% N/A N/A N/A
Tennessee 1,141,000 85% 13% N/A N/A
Texas 3,384,000 63% 11% 22% 4%
Utah 337,000 93% N/A 4% N/A
Vermont 112,000 98% N/A N/A N/A
Virginia 1,212,000 74% 17% 3% 5%
Washington 1,112,000 84% 3% 4% 9%
West Virginia 389,000 95% N/A N/A N/A
Wisconsin 967,000 91% 4% 2% N/A
Wyoming 76,000 94% N/A 4% N/A
NOTE: Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race; all other racial/ethnic groups are non-Hispanic. “Other” category includes Asians, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Aleutians, Eskimos and persons identifying two or more races. These groups have been combined due to their small populations in many states which prevent meaningful statistical analyses of the groups individually. N/A: estimates with relative standard errors greater than 30% are not provided and often correspond to low sample size.

SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of the March 2015 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 2: Characteristics of Medicare Beneficiaries, by Race/Ethnicity, 2011
Measure Total White Black Hispanic
Number of beneficiaries1 50.0 million 38.2 million 4.7 million 4.5 million
Share of beneficiaries 100% 76% 9% 9%
Sex
Male 45% 45% 43% 49%
Female 55% 55% 57% 51%
Age in years
Under 65 17% 14% 31%* 23%*
65-74 44% 45% 39%* 45%
75-84 26% 27% 21%* 23%*
85+ 13% 14% 9%* 8%*
Education level
Less than high school 22% 17% 38%* 46%*
High school graduate 29% 30% 27% 25%*
Some college or 2-year degree 29% 30% 24%* 21%*
College graduate or more 20% 23% 11%* 9%*
Metropolitan status
Metro 77% 74% 85%* 92%*
Non-metro 23% 26% 15%* 8%*
Type of residence
Community 95% 95% 96% 97%*
Facility 5% 5% 4% 3%*
Poverty level (2014)2
Less than 100% 10% 8% 19%* 18%*
100-199% FPL 22% 21% 29%* 30%*
Supplemental coverage3
Medicare Advantage 28% 26% 29% 45%*
Medicaid 15% 11% 28%* 22%*
Employer-sponsored 28% 32% 20% 14%*
Medigap 14% 17% 3%* 4%*
Other 1% 1% 1% 1%
None 14% 13% 19%* 14%
Prescription drug coverage
Enrolled in Part D 57% 55% 66%* 71%*
Enrolled in Part D with Low Income Subsidy (LIS) 23% 17% 46%* 38%*
NOTE: 1Sample includes all beneficiaries, including those who are enrolled for the entire year, those who become eligible during the year, and those who die during the year. 2Poverty estimates are for adults ages 65 and over during 2014. 3Supplemental coverage was assigned in the following order: 1) Medicare Advantage, 2) Medicaid, 3) employer-sponsored, 4) Medigap, 5) other public/private coverage, 6) no supplemental coverage. FPL is federal poverty level. *denotes statistically significant differences at the 95% confidence level from whites.

SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey Cost and Use File, 2011; 2014 poverty rates from March 2015 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 3: Selected Measures of Health Status and Prevalence of Diseases/Chronic Conditions Among Medicare Beneficiaries, By Race/Ethnicity, 2011
Measure Total White Black Hispanic
Number of beneficiaries1 50 million 38.2 million 4.7 million 4.5 million
Self-reported health status        
Excellent/very good/good 73% 76% 63%* 64%*
Fair/poor 27% 24% 37%* 36%*
Activities of daily living (ADLs)2
One or more 35% 34% 41%* 36%
Cognitive/mental impairment3 31% 29% 34% 37%*
Number of chronic conditions4
Less than 3 34% 34% 37% 35%
3-4 39% 39% 39% 40%
5+ 27% 27% 24%* 25%
Diseases/chronic conditions    
Alzheimer’s disease 7% 7% 8% 9%*
Arthritis 55% 55% 53% 54%
Cancer (non-skin) 18% 19% 13%* 16%*
Depression 28% 27% 26% 35%*
Diabetes 26% 23% 38%* 38%*
Heart condition5 39% 41% 34%* 32%*
Heart disease 10% 11% 8%* 9%
Heart failure 8% 8% 9% 6%
Hypertension 68% 66% 79%* 73%*
Mental condition6 31% 30% 31% 38%*
Myocardial Infarction 12% 13% 10%* 11%
Osteoporosis/broken hip 22% 23% 13%* 20%
Parkinson’s disease 1% 2% N/A 1%
Pulmonary condition 20% 20% 19% 17%
Stroke 11% 10% 14%* 12%
NOTE: 1Sample includes all beneficiaries, including those who are enrolled for the entire year, those who become eligible during the year, and those who die during the year. 2Activities of daily living are eating, dressing, getting into and out of bed or chair, taking a bath or shower, using the toilet, and difficulty walking. 3Cognitive/mental impairment is defined as presence of memory loss that interferes with daily activity, difficulty making decisions, trouble concentrating, and loss of interest within the past year. 4The count for chronic conditions includes diagnosis with Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis, diabetes, emphysema, hypertension, osteoporosis, Parkinson’s disease, pulmonary disease, skin cancer, non-skin cancer, stroke, incontinence, broken hip, and/or angina, chronic heart disease and other mental conditions. 5Heart condition is defined as diagnosis with hardening of arteries, angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and/or problem with heart valves or heart rhythm or other heart disease. 6Mental condition is defined as presence of a mental disorder (excluding depression), mental retardation, depression, schizophrenia, and/or manic depression. *denotes statistically significant differences at the 95% confidence level from whites. N/A: estimates with relative standard errors greater than 30% are not provided and often correspond to low sample size.

SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey Cost and Use File, 2011.

Table 4: Selected Measures of Access to Care Among Medicare Beneficiaries, by Race/Ethnicity, 2013
Measure Total White Black Hispanic
Number of beneficiaries1 48.9 million 3606 million 4.7 million 4.6 million
Have a usual source of care 95% 96% 94% 92%*
No usual source of care 5% 4% 6% 8%*
Had trouble getting needed care 6% 5% 7%* 9%*
Had a health problem but did not see the doctor about it 11% 10% 12% 11%
Delayed care due to cost 11% 10% 12% 13%
Average doctor wait time (days) 10.2 10.1 8.3 11.1
Average ER wait time (mins) 46 40 67* 61*
Ease of getting to doctor
Very satisfied 39% 42% 30%* 30%*
Satisfied 54% 52% 64%* 60%*
Dissatisfied 4% 4% 4% 6%*
Very dissatisfied 1% 1% 1% 2%
No experience 2% 2% 2% 2%
Satisfied with the quality of care received
Very satisfied/satisfied 94% 95% 93%* 93%*
Dissatisfied/very dissatisfied 3% 3% 5%* 5%*
No experience 2% 2% 2% 3%
Ever been a resident/patient in a nursing home 7% 7% 8% 5%*
NOTE: 1Sample includes only those beneficiaries who are enrolled for the entire year. *denotes statistically significant differences at the 95% confidence level from whites.

SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey Access to Care File, 2013.

Table 5: Selected Measures of Service Utilization by Traditional Medicare Beneficiaries, by Race/Ethnicity and Self-reported Health Status, 2011
Measure Total White Black Hispanic
Number of beneficiaries1 36.1 million 28.3 million 3.3 million 2.5 million
Self-reported health status Total Exc./
Very good/ good
Fair/ poor Total Exc./
Very good/ good
Fair/ poor Total Exc./
Very good/ good
Fair/ poor Total Exc./
Very good/ good
Fair/ poor
1+ inpatient stays 19% 14% 30% 19% 15% 31% 21% 14% 33% 15%* 8%* 25%
2+ inpatient stays 7% 4% 13% 6% 4% 13% 10%* 5% 18%* 6% N/A 13%
Physician office visit 78% 77% 79% 80% 80% 81% 71%* 66%* 77% 68%* 65%* 74%
Any hospice days 2% 1% 5% 2% 1% 6% 2% N/A N/A 2% N/A N/A
1+ SNF stays 5% 3% 10% 5% 3% 11% 5% N/A 10% 2%* N/A N/A
1+ ED visits 29% 23% 44% 28% 22% 44% 37%* 30%* 47% 29% 22% 40%
2+ ED visits 12% 8% 23% 12% 8% 23% 19%* 14%* 26% 11% 7% 19%
Any Rx events 90% 91% 87% 90% 91% 86% 89% 91% 86% 88% 86% 90%
Any dental events 43% 49% 28% 47% 52% 31% 27%* 30%* 22%* 30%* 36%* 22%
NOTE: 1 Sample includes all beneficiaries, including those who are enrolled for the entire year, those who become eligible during the year, and those who die during the year. Analysis excludes beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare Advantage. *denotes statistically significant differences at the 95% confidence level from whites. Excludes beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare Advantage. Exc. is excellent. SNF is skilled nursing facility. ED is emergency department. Rx is prescription drug. N/A: estimates with relative standard errors greater than 30% are not provided and often correspond to low sample size.

SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey Cost and Use File, 2011.

Chartpack

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