Factors Associated With COVID-19 Cases and Deaths in Long-Term Care Facilities: Findings from a Literature Review

Appendix Table 1: Factors Associated With COVID-19 Cases and Deaths in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Literature Review
Study Measure
Community Spread Quality and Infection Control Staffing Levels and Staffing Shortages Other Facility-Level Characteristics
Adam Dean, Atheendar Venkataramani, and Simeon Kimmel, “Mortality Rates From COVID-19 Are Lower In Unionized Nursing Homes,” Health Affairs, 39 no.11 (September 2020): https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2020.01011 X X
Benjamin F. Bigelow, Olive Tang, Gregory R. Toci, et al., “Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Involving Residents Receiving Dialysis in a Nursing Home — Maryland, April 2020”, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:1089–1094, http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6932e4 X
Brian E. McGarry, David C. Grabowski, and Michael L. Barnett, “Severe Staffing And Personal Protective Equipment Shortages Faced By Nursing Homes During The COVID-19 Pandemic” Health Affairs 39, 10 (August 2020), https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2020.01269 X
Bruce Spurlock, Alex Stack, Charlene Harrington, COVID-19 in California’s Nursing Homes: Factors Associated with Cases and Deaths (California Health Care Foundation, December 2020), https://www.chcf.org/publication/covid-19-californias-nursing-homes-factors-cases-deaths/#recommendations X X
Center for Health and Research Transformation, Keeping nursing home residents safe and advancing health in light of COVID-19 (Center for Health and Research Transformation, (September 2020), https://chrt.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/KeepingNursingHomeResidentsSafeSummaryReport9-8-2020.pdf X
Charlene Harrington, Leslie Ross, Susan Chapman, et al., “Nurse Staffing and Coronavirus Infections in California Nursing Homes.” Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice 21, no. 3 (August 2020): 174–86, https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1527154420938707 X X X
Craig S. Richmond, Arick P. Sabin, Dean A. Jobe, et al., “SARS-CoV-2 sequencing reveals rapid transmission from college student clusters resulting in morbidity and deaths in vulnerable populations” MedRxiv (October 2020), https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.12.20210294 X
David P. Bui, Isaac See, Elisabeth M. Hesse et al., “Association Between CMS Quality Ratings and COVID-19 Outbreaks in Nursing Homes – West Virginia, March 17-June 11, 2020,” MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 69 no. 37 (September 2020): 1300–1304. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6937a5 X X
Diane Gibson and Jessica Greene, “State Actions and Shortages of PPE and Staff in U.S Nursing Homes” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (October 2020), https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16883 X
Elizabeth M. White, Cyrus M. Kosar, Richard A.Feifer, et al., “Variation in SARS‐CoV‐2 Prevalence in U.S. Skilled Nursing Facilities,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 68, no 10 (October 2020): 2167-2173, https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16752 X X X
Hannah R. Abrams, Lacey Loomer, Ashvin Gandhi, et al., “Characteristics of U.S. Nursing Homes with COVID‐19 Cases,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 68, no 8 (August 2020): 1653-1656, https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16661 X X
Helena Temkin-Greener, Wenhan Guo, Yunjiao Mao, et al., “COVID‐19 Pandemic in Assisted Living Communities: Results from Seven States,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 68, no 12 (December 2020): 2727-2734, https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16850 X X
Huiwen Xu, Orna Intrator, and John R. Bowblis, “Shortages of Staff in Nursing Homes During the COVID-19 Pandemic: What are the Driving Factors?” Journal of the American Medical Directors 21, 10 (October 2020): 1371-1377, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.08.002 X
Jordan Rau and Anna Almendrala, “COVID-Plagued California Nursing Homes Often Had Problems in Past,” Kaiser Health News (May 2020), https://khn.org/news/covid-plagued-california-nursing-homes-often-had-problems-in-past/ X
Jose F. Figueroa, Rishi K. Wadhera, Irene Papanicolas, et al., “Association of Nursing Home Ratings on Health Inspections, Quality of Care, and Nurse Staffing With COVID-19 Cases,” JAMA 324, no 11 (August 2020): 1103-1105, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.14709 X X
M Keith Chen, Judith A. Chevalier, and Elisa F. Long, “Nursing Home Staff Networks and COVID-19”, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series No. 27608 (July 2020), https://www.nber.org/papers/w27608 X X X
Margaret M. Sugg, Trent J. Spaulding, Sandi J. Lane, et al., “Mapping community-level determinants of COVID-19 transmission in nursing homes: A multi-scale approach,” Science of the Total Environment 752, no. 15 (January 2021):141946, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141946 X
Mark Aaron Unruh, Hyunkyung Yun, Yongkang Zhang, et al., “ Nursing Home Characteristics Associated With COVID-19 Deaths in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 21 no. 7 (July 2020): 1001–1003, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.06.019 X
Mengying He, Yumeng Li, and Fang Fang, “Is There a Link between Nursing Home Reported Quality and COVID-19 Cases? Evidence from California Skilled Nursing Facilities,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 21, no. 7 (July 2020): 905–908, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.06.016 X X
New York State Department of Health, Factors Associated with Nursing Home Infections and Fatalities in New York State During the COVID-19 Global Health Crisis ( New York, NY: New York State Department of Health, July 2020), https://www.health.ny.gov/press/releases/2020/docs/nhfactorsreport.pdf X X
Patricia Rowan, Reena Gupta, Rebecca Lester, et al., A Study of the COVID-19 Outbreak and Response in Connecticut Long-Term Care Facilities ( Princeton, NJ: Mathematica, Inc., September 2020), https://www.mathematica.org/our-publications-and-findings/publications/fr-a-study-of-the-covid-19-outbreak-and-response-in-connecticut-long-term-care-facilities X
Paul Chatterjee, Sheila Kelly, Mingyu Qi, et al., “Characteristics and Quality of US Nursing Homes Reporting Cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19),” JAMA Network Open 3, no 7 (July 2020): e2016930, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16930 X X X
Priya Chidambaram, Rising Cases in Long-term Care Facilities Are Cause for Concern (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, July 2020), https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/rising-cases-in-long-term-care-facilities-are-cause-for-concern/ X
Priya Chidambaram, Tricia Neuman, and Rachel Garfield, Racial and Ethnic Disparities in COVID-19 Cases and Deaths in Nursing Homes (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, October 2020), https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-nursing-homes/ X
Rebecca Gorges and R. Tamara Konetzka, “Staffing Levels and COVID-19 Cases and Outbreaks in U.S Nursing Homes,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 68 no. 11 (August 2020): 2462-2466, https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16787 X X
Robert Tyler Braun, Hyunkyung Yun, Lawrence P. Casalino et al., “Comparative Performance of Private Equity–Owned US Nursing Homes During the COVID-19 Pandemic,” JAMA Network Open 3, no 10 (October 2020): e2026702, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.26702 X X
Sandra M. Shi, Innokentiy Bakaev, Helen Chen, et al., “Risk Factors, Presentation, and Course of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in a Large, Academic Long-Term Care Facility”, JAMDA, 21 (August 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.08.027 X X
The New York Times, “The Striking Racial Divide in How Covid-19 Has Hit Nursing Homes”, The New York Times (September 2020), https://www.nytimes.com/article/coronavirus-nursing-homes-racial-disparity.html?action=click&module=Well&pgtype=Homepage§ion=US%20News X
Yue Li, Xi Cen, Xeuya Cai, et al., “Racial and Ethnic Disparities in COVID‐19 Infections and Deaths Across U.S. Nursing Homes,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 68 no. 11 (September 2020): 2454-2461, https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16847 X
Yue Li, Helena Temkin‐Greener, Gao Shan, et al., “COVID‐19 Infections and Deaths among Connecticut Nursing Home Residents: Facility Correlates,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association , 68 no. 9 (September 2020): 1899-1906, https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16689 X X X
NOTES: X denotes that the study had findings related to the specific measure.
SOURCE: KFF analysis of 30 studies that have examined potential predictors of COVID-19 cases and/or deaths in long-term care facilities
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