Overview
  1. David Barton Smith, The Power to Heal: Civil Rights, Medicare, and the Struggle to Transform America’s Health Care System (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2016).

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  2. Emily A. Largent, “Public Health, Racism, and the Lasting Impact of Hospital Segregation,” Public Health Reports 133, no. 6 (2018): 715–20, https://doi.org/10.1177/0033354918795891.

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  3. Anouk Lloren et al., “Measuring Hospital-Specific Disparities by Dual Eligibility and Race to Reduce Health Inequities,” Health Services Research 54, no. February (2019): 243–54, https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13108.

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  4. Nicholas S. Downing et al., “Association of Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities With Outcomes Among Patients Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure, and Pneumonia: An Analysis of Within- and Between-Hospital Variation,” JAMA Network Open 1, no. 5 (2018): e182044, https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.2044.

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  5. Yue Li et al., “Medicare Advantage Associated With More Racial Disparity Than Traditional Medicare For Hospital Readmissions,” Health Affairs 36, no. 7 (2017): 1328–35, https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.1344.

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  6. Downing et al., “Association of Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities With Outcomes Among Patients Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure, and Pneumonia: An Analysis of Within- and Between-Hospital Variation.”

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  7. Maricruz Rivera-hernandez et al., “Racial Disparities in Readmission Rates among Patients Discharged to Skilled Nursing Facilities,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 67, no. 8 (2019): 1672–79, https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15960.Racial.

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  8. Jolyn Taylor et al., “Disparities in Treatment and Survival among Elderly Ovarian Cancer Patients,” Gynecologic Oncology 151, no. 2 (2018): 269–94, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2018.08.041.

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  9. Jeffrey H. Silber et al., “Disparities in Breast Cancer Survival by Socioeconomic Status Despite Medicare and Medicaid Insurance,” Milbank Quarterly 96, no. 4 (2018): 706–54, https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12355.

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  10. Ikumi Suzuki et al., “Racial Disparities in Outcome among Head and Neck Cancer Patients in the United States: An Analysis Using SEER-Medicare Linked Database.,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 37, no. 15 (2018): 6051–6051, https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2019.37.15_suppl.6051.

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  11. Clara Lam et al., “Differences in Cancer Survival among White and Black Cancer Patients by Presence of Diabetes Mellitus: Estimations Based on SEER-Medicare-Linked Data Resource,” Cancer Medicine 7, no. 7 (2018): 3434–44, https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1554.

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  12. Sikander Ailawadhi et al., “Racial Disparities in Treatment Patterns and Outcomes among Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A SEER-Medicare Analysis,” Blood Advances 3, no. 20 (2019): 2986–94, https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000308.

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  13. Arline T Geronimus, “The Weathering Hypothesis and the Health of African-American Women and Infants: Evidence and Speculations.,” Ethn Dis. 2, no. 3 (1992): 207–21.

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  14. Arline T. Geronimus et al., “‘Weathering’ and Age Patterns of Allostatic Load Scores among Blacks and Whites in the United States,” American Journal of Public Health 96, no. 5 (2006): 826–33, https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2004.060749.

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  15. Dinorah Martinez Tyson et al., “Unpacking Hispanic Ethnicity—Cancer Mortality Differentials Among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2004–2014,” Frontiers in Public Health 6, no. August (2018): 1–11, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00219.

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  16. Fatima Rodriguez et al., “Disaggregation of Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Hispanic Subgroups,” JAMA Cardiology 2, no. 3 (2017): 240–47, https://doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2016.4653.

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Demographics
  1. Robert Grove and Alice Hetzel, Vital Statistics Rates in the United States: 1940-1960 (Washington, DC: U.S Government Printing Office, 1968); Elizabeth Arias, Brian L. Rostron, and Tejada-Vera Betzaida, “United States Life Tables, 2005,” National Vital Statistics Reports 58, no. 10 (2010); Jiaquan Xu et al., “Deaths: Final Data for 2007,” National Vital Statistics Reports 58, no. 19 (2010), available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2010/022.pdf.

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  2. Jennifer Van Hook, Michelle Frisco, and Carlyn Graham, “Signs of the End of the Paradox? Cohort Shifts in Smoking and Obesity and the Hispanic Life Expectancy Advantage,” Sociological Science 7 (2020): 391–414, https://doi.org/10.15195/v7.a16.

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  3. Michelle L. Frisco, Jennifer Van Hook, and Robert A. Hummer, “Would the Elimination of Obesity and Smoking Reduce U.S. Racial/Ethnic/Nativity Disparities in Total and Healthy Life Expectancy?,” SSM - Population Health 7 (2019): 100374, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100374.

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  4. Van Hook, Frisco, and Graham, “Signs of the End of the Paradox? Cohort Shifts in Smoking and Obesity and the Hispanic Life Expectancy Advantage.”

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  5. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults: Opportunities for the Health Care System (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2020).

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Education, Poverty, and Wealth
  1. Alexandra Killewald and Brielle Bryan, “Falling Behind: The Role of Inter- and Intragenerational Processes in Widening Racial and Ethnic Wealth Gaps through Early and Middle Adulthood,” Social Forces 97, no. 2 (2018): 705–40.

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  2. Tyson H. Brown, “Diverging Fortunes: Racial/Ethnic Inequality in Wealth Trajectories in Middle and Late Life,” Race and Social Problems 8, no. 1 (2016): 29–41, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12552-016-9160-2.

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  3. Raj Chetty et al., “Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States: An Intergenerational Perspective” (Cambridge, MA, 2018), https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w24441/w24441.pdf.

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Health Status and Disease Prevalence
  1. Ling Na et al., “Activity Limitation Stages Are Associated With Risk of Hospitalization Among Medicare Beneficiaries,” PM and R 9, no. 5 (2017): 433–43, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.09.008.

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  2. Jibby E. Kurichi et al., “Predicting 3-Year Mortality and Admission to Acute-Care Hospitals, Skilled Nursing Facilities, and Long-Term Care Facilities in Medicare Beneficiaries,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 73 (2017): 248–56, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2017.08.005.

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  3. Bjoern Suckow et al., “Hemoglobin A1c Testing and Amputation Rates in Black, Hispanic, and White Medicare Patients,” Annals of Vascular Surgery 36 (2016): 208–17, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2016.03.035.

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Access to Care and Service Utilization
  1. Laura L. Hall et al., “A Map of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccine Uptake in the Medicare Fee-for-Service Program,” Advances in Therapy 37, no. 5 (2020): 2224–35, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01324-y.

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COVID-19
  1. Rebecca Skloot, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks (Crown Publishing Group, 2010).

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