Racial and Ethnic Health Inequities and Medicare
David Barton Smith, The Power to Heal: Civil Rights, Medicare, and the Struggle to Transform America’s Health Care System (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2016).
Emily A. Largent, “Public Health, Racism, and the Lasting Impact of Hospital Segregation,” Public Health Reports 133, no. 6 (2018): 715–20, https://doi.org/10.1177/0033354918795891.
Anouk Lloren et al., “Measuring Hospital-Specific Disparities by Dual Eligibility and Race to Reduce Health Inequities,” Health Services Research 54, no. February (2019): 243–54, https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13108.
Nicholas S. Downing et al., “Association of Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities With Outcomes Among Patients Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure, and Pneumonia: An Analysis of Within- and Between-Hospital Variation,” JAMA Network Open 1, no. 5 (2018): e182044, https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.2044.
Yue Li et al., “Medicare Advantage Associated With More Racial Disparity Than Traditional Medicare For Hospital Readmissions,” Health Affairs 36, no. 7 (2017): 1328–35, https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.1344.
Downing et al., “Association of Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities With Outcomes Among Patients Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure, and Pneumonia: An Analysis of Within- and Between-Hospital Variation.”
Maricruz Rivera-hernandez et al., “Racial Disparities in Readmission Rates among Patients Discharged to Skilled Nursing Facilities,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 67, no. 8 (2019): 1672–79, https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15960.Racial.
Jolyn Taylor et al., “Disparities in Treatment and Survival among Elderly Ovarian Cancer Patients,” Gynecologic Oncology 151, no. 2 (2018): 269–94, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2018.08.041.
Jeffrey H. Silber et al., “Disparities in Breast Cancer Survival by Socioeconomic Status Despite Medicare and Medicaid Insurance,” Milbank Quarterly 96, no. 4 (2018): 706–54, https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12355.
Ikumi Suzuki et al., “Racial Disparities in Outcome among Head and Neck Cancer Patients in the United States: An Analysis Using SEER-Medicare Linked Database.,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 37, no. 15 (2018): 6051–6051, https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2019.37.15_suppl.6051.
Clara Lam et al., “Differences in Cancer Survival among White and Black Cancer Patients by Presence of Diabetes Mellitus: Estimations Based on SEER-Medicare-Linked Data Resource,” Cancer Medicine 7, no. 7 (2018): 3434–44, https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1554.
Sikander Ailawadhi et al., “Racial Disparities in Treatment Patterns and Outcomes among Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A SEER-Medicare Analysis,” Blood Advances 3, no. 20 (2019): 2986–94, https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000308.
Arline T Geronimus, “The Weathering Hypothesis and the Health of African-American Women and Infants: Evidence and Speculations.,” Ethn Dis. 2, no. 3 (1992): 207–21.
Arline T. Geronimus et al., “‘Weathering’ and Age Patterns of Allostatic Load Scores among Blacks and Whites in the United States,” American Journal of Public Health 96, no. 5 (2006): 826–33, https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2004.060749.
Dinorah Martinez Tyson et al., “Unpacking Hispanic Ethnicity—Cancer Mortality Differentials Among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2004–2014,” Frontiers in Public Health 6, no. August (2018): 1–11, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00219.
Fatima Rodriguez et al., “Disaggregation of Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Hispanic Subgroups,” JAMA Cardiology 2, no. 3 (2017): 240–47, https://doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2016.4653.
Robert Grove and Alice Hetzel, Vital Statistics Rates in the United States: 1940-1960 (Washington, DC: U.S Government Printing Office, 1968); Elizabeth Arias, Brian L. Rostron, and Tejada-Vera Betzaida, “United States Life Tables, 2005,” National Vital Statistics Reports 58, no. 10 (2010); Jiaquan Xu et al., “Deaths: Final Data for 2007,” National Vital Statistics Reports 58, no. 19 (2010), available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2010/022.pdf.
Jennifer Van Hook, Michelle Frisco, and Carlyn Graham, “Signs of the End of the Paradox? Cohort Shifts in Smoking and Obesity and the Hispanic Life Expectancy Advantage,” Sociological Science 7 (2020): 391–414, https://doi.org/10.15195/v7.a16.
Michelle L. Frisco, Jennifer Van Hook, and Robert A. Hummer, “Would the Elimination of Obesity and Smoking Reduce U.S. Racial/Ethnic/Nativity Disparities in Total and Healthy Life Expectancy?,” SSM - Population Health 7 (2019): 100374, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100374.
Van Hook, Frisco, and Graham, “Signs of the End of the Paradox? Cohort Shifts in Smoking and Obesity and the Hispanic Life Expectancy Advantage.”
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults: Opportunities for the Health Care System (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2020).
Education, Poverty, and Wealth
Alexandra Killewald and Brielle Bryan, “Falling Behind: The Role of Inter- and Intragenerational Processes in Widening Racial and Ethnic Wealth Gaps through Early and Middle Adulthood,” Social Forces 97, no. 2 (2018): 705–40.
Tyson H. Brown, “Diverging Fortunes: Racial/Ethnic Inequality in Wealth Trajectories in Middle and Late Life,” Race and Social Problems 8, no. 1 (2016): 29–41, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12552-016-9160-2.
Raj Chetty et al., “Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States: An Intergenerational Perspective” (Cambridge, MA, 2018), https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w24441/w24441.pdf.
Health Status and Disease Prevalence
Ling Na et al., “Activity Limitation Stages Are Associated With Risk of Hospitalization Among Medicare Beneficiaries,” PM and R 9, no. 5 (2017): 433–43, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.09.008.
Jibby E. Kurichi et al., “Predicting 3-Year Mortality and Admission to Acute-Care Hospitals, Skilled Nursing Facilities, and Long-Term Care Facilities in Medicare Beneficiaries,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 73 (2017): 248–56, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2017.08.005.
Bjoern Suckow et al., “Hemoglobin A1c Testing and Amputation Rates in Black, Hispanic, and White Medicare Patients,” Annals of Vascular Surgery 36 (2016): 208–17, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2016.03.035.
Access to Care and Service Utilization
Laura L. Hall et al., “A Map of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccine Uptake in the Medicare Fee-for-Service Program,” Advances in Therapy 37, no. 5 (2020): 2224–35, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01324-y.
Rebecca Skloot, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks (Crown Publishing Group, 2010).