Donor Government Funding for HIV in Low- and Middle-Income Countries in 2021
This project represents a collaboration between the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the KFF. Data provided in this report were collected and analyzed by UNAIDS and the KFF.
Bilateral and multilateral data on donor government assistance for HIV in low- and middle-income countries were collected from multiple sources. The research team solicited bilateral assistance data directly, from the governments of Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States during the first half of 2022, representing the fiscal year 2021 period. Direct data collection from these donors was desirable because the latest official statistics on international HIV specific assistance – from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Creditor Reporting System (CRS) (see: http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/data) – are from 2020 and do not include all forms of international assistance (e.g., certain funding streams provided by donors, such as HIV components of mixed-purpose grants to non-governmental organizations).
Where donor governments were members of the European Union (EU), the research team ensured that no double-counting of funds occurred between EU Member State reported amounts and European Commission (EC) reported amounts for international HIV assistance. Figures obtained directly using this approach should be considered as the upper bound estimation of financial flows in support of HIV-related activities.
Data for all other member governments of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) – Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, the European Commission, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Korea, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland – were obtained from the OECD CRS database and UNAIDS records of core contributions. The CRS data are from calendar year 2020, and therefore, do not necessarily reflect 2021 calendar year amounts. However, collectively, these governments have accounted for less than 5 percent of bilateral disbursements in each of the past several years. UNAIDS core contributions reflect 2021 amounts.
Data included in this report represent funding assistance for HIV prevention, care, treatment and support activities, but do not include funding for international HIV research conducted in donor countries (which is not considered in estimates of resource needs for service delivery of HIV-related activities).
Bilateral funding is defined as any earmarked (HIV-designated) amount, including earmarked non-core (“multi-bi”) contributions to multilateral organizations, such as UNAIDS. Reflecting deliberate strategies of integrating HIV activities into other activity sectors, some donors use policy markers to attribute portions of mixed-purpose projects to HIV. This is done, for example, by the Netherlands and the U.K. The bilateral figures submitted by the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) for the financial year 2021/22 are based on an existing FCDO ‘HIV policy marker’. Ireland and Denmark also attribute percentages of multipurpose projects to HIV. Canada breaks its mixed-purpose projects into components by percentage. Germany, Norway, and Sweden provided data much more conservatively, consistent with DAC constructs and purpose codes. Apart from targeted HIV/AIDS programs, bilateral health programs mainly focusing on health systems strengthening are also designed to contribute to the HIV response in partner countries. Global Fund contributions from all governments correspond to amounts received by the Fund during the 2021 calendar year, regardless of which contributor’s fiscal year such disbursements pertain to. Data from the U.K., Canada, Australia, Denmark, France, Norway, and Germany should be considered preliminary estimates.
Bilateral assistance data were collected for disbursements. A disbursement is the actual release of funds to, or the purchase of goods or services for, a recipient. Disbursements in any given year may include disbursements of funds committed in prior years and in some cases, not all funds committed during a government fiscal year are disbursed in that year. In addition, a disbursement by a government does not necessarily mean that the funds were provided to a country or other intended end-user.
Included in multilateral funding were core contributions to UNAIDS, as well as contributions to the Global Fund (see: http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/) and UNITAID (see: http://www.unitaid.org/#end). All Global Fund contributions were adjusted to represent 53% of the donor’s core contribution, reflecting the Fund’s reported grant approvals for HIV-related projects to date and includes HIV/TB. UNITAID contributions were adjusted to represent 45% of the donor’s core contribution, reflecting UNITAID’s reported attribution for HIV-related projects.
In addition to contributions supporting the Global Fund’s and UNITAID’s core activities, some donor governments provided significant funding to these multilateral organizations for COVID-related efforts. These COVID-specific contributions were not included in totals for the purposes of this report. The U.S., for example, provided $1.5 billion in such funding to the Global Fund during 2021.
Other than contributions provided by governments to the Global Fund and UNITAID, un-earmarked general contributions to United Nations entities, most of which are membership contributions set by treaty or other formal agreement (e.g., the World Bank’s International Development Association or United Nations country membership assessments), are not identified as part of a donor government’s HIV assistance even if the multilateral organization in turn directs some of these funds to HIV. Rather, these would be considered as HIV funding provided by the multilateral organization, as in the case of the World Bank’s efforts, and are not considered for purposes of this report.
Bilateral data collected directly from the Australian, Canadian, Japanese, U.K., and U.S. governments reflect the fiscal year (FY) period as defined by the donor, which varies by country. The U.S. fiscal year runs from October 1-September 30. The fiscal years for Canada, Japan, and the U.K. are April 1-March 31. The Australian fiscal year runs from July 1-June 30. The European Commission, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden use the calendar year. The OECD uses the calendar year, so data collected from the CRS for other donor governments reflect January 1-December 31. Most UN agencies use the calendar year and their budgets are biennial. The Global Fund’s fiscal year is also the calendar year.
All data are expressed in current US dollars (USD), unless otherwise noted. Where data were provided by governments in their currencies, they were adjusted by average daily exchange rates to obtain a USD equivalent, based on foreign exchange rate historical data available from the U.S. Federal Reserve (see: http://www.federalreserve.gov/) or the OECD. Data obtained from UNITAID were already adjusted to represent a USD equivalent based on date of receipts. Data on gross domestic product (GDP) were obtained from the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook Database and represent current price data for 2021 (see: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2021/01/weodata/index.aspx). Where data are expressed in constant USD, they were based on analysis of data from the OECD DAC, and account for both inflation and exchange rate differences.