Health Care Spending Among Low-Income Households with and without Medicaid
“Medicaid and CHIP Program Information”, CMS. Accessed December 17, 2015, http://www.medicaid.gov/medicaid-chip-program-information/medicaid-and-chip-program-information.html.
“2014 Poverty Guidelines,” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, http://aspe.hhs.gov/2014-poverty-guidelines.
Kaiser Family Foundation State Health Facts, “Status of State Action on the Medicaid Expansion Decision,” accessed January 13, 2016, https://www.kff.org/health-reform/state-indicator/state-activity-around-expanding-medicaid-under-the-affordable-care-act/.
2014 Consumer Expenditure Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics, September, 2015, Annual Calendar Year Tables Table 1202 “Income before taxes: Annual expenditure means, shares, standard errors, and coefficients of variation,” http://www.bls.gov/cex/#tables_longhttp://www.bls.gov/cex/.
Melissa Majerol, Vann Newkirk, and Rachel Garfield, The Uninsured: A Primer Key Facts about Health Insurance and the Uninsured in the Era of Health Reform (Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, November 2015), https://www.kff.org/uninsured/report/the-uninsured-a-primer-key-facts-about-health-insurance-and-the-uninsured-in-the-era-of-health-reform/.
Gary Claxton, Matthew Rae, Michelle Long, Nirmita Panchal, Anthony Damico, Kevin Kenward, Heidi Whitmore, 2015 Kaiser/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research & Educational Trust, 2013), https://www.kff.org/health-costs/report/2015-employer-health-benefits-survey/.
Although the total absolute dollar value of OOP health spending statistically significantly differs between Medicaid beneficiaries and the low-income uninsured, the distribution of such spending between these two groups does not vary to a detectable extent. This may be partially attributed to the high degree of variation of the components of healthcare spending within these two groups.
- In 2012, 43 states required copayments for prescription drugs, while only 31 states required copayments for physician services, 28 required copayments for Federally Qualified Health Center services, and 24 required copayments for nurse practitioner services. Kaiser Family Foundation State Health Facts. Data source: KCMU Medicaid Benefits Database, prepared by Health Management Associates for the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured (KCMU), available at: https://www.kff.org/data-collection/medicaid-benefits/
2014 Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of Low-Income Americans and the ACA.