Latest Data on COVID-19 Vaccinations by Race/Ethnicity
Close to 70% (68.3%) of the adult population in the United States have received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. While this progress represents a marked achievement in vaccinations that has led to steep declines in COVID-19 cases and deaths, vaccination coverage—and the protections provided by it—remains uneven across the country. With growing spread of the more transmissible Delta variant, cases, hospitalizations, and deaths are once again rising, largely among unvaccinated people. Persistently lower vaccination rates among Black and Hispanic people compared to their White counterparts across most states leave them at increased risk, particularly as the variant spreads.
Reaching high vaccination rates across individuals and communities will be key for achieving broad protection through a vaccine, mitigating the disproportionate impacts of the virus for people of color, and preventing widening racial health disparities going forward. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has indicated that vaccine equity is an important goal and defined equity as preferential access and administration to those who have been most affected by COVID-19.
The CDC reports demographic characteristics, including race/ethnicity, of people receiving COVID-19 vaccinations at the national level. As of July 19, 2021, CDC reported that race/ethnicity was known for 58% of people who had received at least one dose of the vaccine. Among this group, nearly two thirds were White (59%), 9% were Black, 16% were Hispanic, 6% were Asian, 1% were American Indian or Alaska Native, and <1% were Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, while 8% reported multiple or other race. However, CDC data also show that recent vaccinations are reaching larger shares of Hispanic, Asian, and Black populations compared to overall vaccinations. Thirty percent of vaccines administered in the past 14 days have gone to Hispanic people, 6% to Asian people, and 14% to Black people (Figure 1). These recent patterns suggest a narrowing of racial gaps in vaccinations at the national level, particularly for Hispanic and Black people, who account for a larger share of recent vaccinations compared to their share of the total population (30% vs. 17% and 13% vs. 12%, respectively). While these data provide helpful insights at a national level, to date, CDC is not publicly reporting state-level data on the racial/ethnic composition of people vaccinated.
To provide greater insight into who is receiving the vaccine and racial/ethnic disparities in vaccination, KFF is collecting and analyzing state-reported data on COVID-19 vaccinations by race/ethnicity. As of July 19, 2021, 46 states and Washington D.C. were reporting vaccination data by race/ethnicity. This analysis examines how the vaccinations have been distributed by race/ethnicity and the share of the total population vaccinated by race/ethnicity. It also assesses trends in these data since March 1.
Distribution of Vaccinations by Race/Ethnicity
Figure 2 shows the shares of COVID-19 vaccinations, cases, and deaths among Black, Hispanic, Asian, and White people. The data also show the distribution of the total population by these groups as of 2019. Data are not presented for other groups due to data limitations. Together these data show:
As observed in prior weeks, Black and Hispanic people have received smaller shares of vaccinations compared to their shares of cases and compared to their shares of the total population in most states. The share of vaccinations received by Black people also continues to be smaller than their share of deaths in most states, although in some states it is similar to the share of deaths. The share of vaccinations received by Hispanic people is similar to or higher than their share of deaths in most reporting states, although in some states it continues to be lower. For example, in California, 30% of vaccinations have gone to Hispanic people, while they account for 63% of cases, 48% of deaths, and 40% of the total population in the state. Similarly, in the District of Columbia, Black people have received 43% of vaccinations, while they make up 56% of cases, 71% of deaths, and 46% of the total population. The size of these differences varies across states. The number of states where the shares of vaccinations received by Black and Hispanic people are more proportionate to their shares of the total population and/or their shares of cases or deaths in the state has grown over time.
In most states, the share of vaccinations among Asian people was similar to or higher than their share of cases, deaths, and total population, although, in a few states, it was lower. In Vermont, 2% of vaccinations have been received by Asian people, while they have accounted for 4% of cases. The share of vaccinations among Asian people was similar to or higher than their share of the total population in most states, except South Dakota and Pennsylvania, where it was lower. In Hawaii, 53% of vaccinations have been received by Asian people, which is higher than their share of the total population (40%), but closer to their share of deaths (48%).
White people received a higher share of vaccinations compared to their share of cases in most states reporting data. In about half of reporting states they received a higher share of vaccinations compared to their shares of deaths and total population, while in other states it was similar or lower. For example, in Colorado, 78% of vaccinations were received by White people, while they make up 68% of the population. In Tennessee, 66% of vaccinations have been received by White people, which is lower than their share of cases (71%), deaths (78%), and their share of the population (77%).
Between March 1 and July 19, the share of vaccinations going to Hispanic people increased in all states reporting data for both periods and increased for Black people in most reporting states. In a few cases, these increases were large. For example, the share of vaccinations going to Black people increased from 26% to 43% in DC and from 25% to 37% in Mississippi. Similarly, the share of vaccinations going to Hispanic people increased by at least 10 percentage points in six states, including Florida (17% to 30%), Nevada (13% to 25%), California (19% to 30%), New Jersey (6% to 17%), Texas (23% to 35%), and New York (9% to 19%). The share of vaccinations going to Asian people also increased in most states reporting data for both periods, while it fell for White people in most reporting states. The share going to White people declined by 10 percentage points or more in thirteen states (Arizona, Florida, Nevada, Alabama, Georgia, New Jersey, Tennessee, Virginia, Mississippi, Texas, and Maine, Illinois, and New York).
Percent of the Total Population Vaccinated by Race/Ethnicity
We also calculate the percent of the total population that has received a COVID-19 vaccine for 42 states that report racial/ethnic data based on people who have received at least one dose of the vaccine. (States that report race/ethnicity based on total doses administered are excluded from this analysis.) Figure 3 shows the percent of the total population who have been vaccinated by race/ethnicity in each of these states and the total across 40 of these states. (North Dakota and New Mexico are excluded from the total due to differences in how they report their data.) It also shows the ratio of vaccination rates for White people compared to those of Black, Hispanic, and Asian people as well as the percentage point difference between vaccination rates for White people and the rates for the other groups.
Overall, across these 40 states, the percent of White people who have received at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose (48%) was roughly 1.3 times higher than the rate for Black people (36%) and 1.2 times higher than the rate for Hispanic people (41%) as of July 19, 2021. White people had a higher vaccination rate compared to Hispanic people in all reporting states, except Vermont, Missouri, DC, Louisiana, and Tennessee, and a higher rate than Black people in every reporting state, except Oregon, Alaska, and Idaho. However, the size of these differences varied widely across states. For example, White people were over twice as likely to have received a vaccine as Hispanic people in Colorado and South Dakota and had at least a two times higher vaccination rate than Black people in Iowa and South Dakota. The overall vaccination rate across states for Asian people was higher compared to White people (65% vs. 48%), which is consistent with the pattern in most reporting states. However, Asian people had lower vaccinations rates than White people in five states (Colorado, Utah, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, and South Dakota).
As of July 19, less than half of Black and Hispanic people have received at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose in the vast majority of states reporting data. The vaccination rate for Black people is less than 50% in 38 of 42 reporting states, including 14 states where less than a third of Black people have received one or more doses. Similarly, less than half of Hispanic people have received a COVID-19 vaccine dose in 34 of 40 reporting states, including 10 states where less than a third have received at least one dose. At least half of White people have received a COVID-19 vaccine dose in 17 of 42 states. The rate remains below 50% in the remaining 25 states but falls below a third in only one state, Idaho. At least half of Asian people have received one or more doses in more than half of reporting states (32 of 39).
There was a small increase in vaccination rates across racial/ethnic groups over the past two weeks (July 6 to July 19), following the slowdown over the July 4th holiday week (Figure 4). Vaccination rates increased by 2.7 percentage points for Asian people, from 61.9% to 64.6%, by 1.5 percentage points for Hispanic people, from 39.2% to 40.7%, by 1.8 percentage points for Black people, from 34.2% to 36.0%, and by 0.9 percentage points for White people, from 46.8% to 47.7%. However, even with these increases, gaps in vaccination rates are persisting for Black and Hispanic people.
The completeness of race/ethnicity data has improved in most states since March 1. Most states have had declines in their shares of vaccinations with unknown or missing race, with some states, like Arizona, experiencing particularly large declines, falling from (36% of vaccinations with unknown race to 11%).
Together, these data show that, despite recent trends suggesting improving equity in COVID-19 vaccination patterns and a recent narrowing in the gap between vaccination rates for White and Hispanic people, disparities are persisting. Less than half of Black and Hispanic people have received at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose in nearly all states reporting data, including a number of states where less than a third have received a vaccine. These lower vaccination rates among Black and Hispanic people leave them at increased risk for coronavirus, particularly as the Delta variant spreads, potentially leading to widening disparities going forward and limiting the nation’s recovery.
The federal government, states, and local communities have implemented a range of strategies to address these disparities by making the vaccines more accessible and providing outreach and education to address questions and concerns about the vaccines. However, these data highlight the continued importance of efforts to prioritize equity and address gaps in vaccination both geographically and across racial/ethnic groups.
While the data provide useful insights, they also remain subject to gaps, limitations, and inconsistencies that limit the ability to get a complete picture of who is and who is not getting vaccinated. For example, data gaps and separate reporting of data for vaccinations administered through the Indian Health Service limit the ability to analyze vaccinations among American Indian and Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander people. Moreover, some states have high shares of vaccinations that are missing race/ethnicity, limiting the ability to interpret the data. For example, in Washington D.C., 28% of vaccinations were among people classified as “unknown.” Three states were not reporting vaccination data by race/ethnicity. Comprehensive standardized data across states are vital to monitor and ensure equitable access to and take up of the vaccine.
All reported data on vaccinations by race/ethnicity are available through our COVID-19 State Data and Policy Actions tracker and downloadable through our State Health Facts Online tables. KFF will be continuing to update these data on a regular basis going forward as vaccination distribution continues.