Strategies to Reduce Medicaid Spending: Findings from a Literature Review

Issue Brief
  1. Powell V, Saloner B, Sabik LM. Cost sharing in Medicaid: Assumptions, evidence, and future directions. Med. Care Res. Rev. 2016;73(4):383-409.

     

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  2. Snyder L, Rudowitz R. Premiums and cost-sharing in Medicaid: A review of research findings. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured; 2013. https://www.kff.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/8417-premiums-and-cost-sharing-in-medicaid.pdf

     

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  3. MACPAC. The effect of premiums and cost sharing on access and outcomes for low-income children. [Issue Brief]. 2015; https://www.macpac.gov/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Effect-of-Cost-Sharing-on-Low-Income-Children.pdf.

     

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  4. Dague L. The effect of Medicaid premiums on enrollment: A regression discontinuity approach. J. Health Econ. 2014;37:1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2014.05.001

     

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  5. Wright BJ, Carlson MJ, Allen H, Holmgren AL, Rustvold DL. Raising premiums and other costs for Oregon health plan enrollees drove many to drop out. Health Aff. (Millwood). 2010;29(12):2311-2316. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0211

     

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  6. Kenney G, Allison RA, Costich JF, Marton J, McFeeters J. Effects of premium increases on enrollment in SCHIP: findings from three states. Inquiry. 2006;43(4):378-392. doi: 10.5034/inquiryjrnl_43.4.378

     

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  7. Herndon JB, Vogel WB, Bucciarelli RL, Shenkman EA. The effect of premium changes on SCHIP enrollment duration. Health Serv. Res. 2008;43(2):458-477. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00777.x

     

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  8. Dague L. The effect of Medicaid premiums on enrollment: A regression discontinuity approach. J. Health Econ. 2014;37:1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2014.05.001

     

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  9.   MACPAC. The effect of premiums and cost sharing on access and outcomes for low-income children. [Issue Brief]. 2015; https://www.macpac.gov/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Effect-of-Cost-Sharing-on-Low-Income-Children.pdf.

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  10. Snyder L, Rudowitz R. Premiums and cost-sharing in Medicaid: A review of research findings. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured; 2013. https://www.kff.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/8417-premiums-and-cost-sharing-in-medicaid.pdf

     

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  11. Wright BJ, Carlson MJ, Allen H, Holmgren AL, Rustvold DL. Raising premiums and other costs for

    Oregon health plan enrollees drove many to drop out. Health Aff. (Millwood).

    2010;29(12):2311-2316. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0211

     

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  12. Manning WG, Newhouse JP, Duan N, Keeler EB, Leibowitz A, Marquis MS. Health insurance and the

    demand for medical care: Evidence from a randomized experiment. Am. Econ. Rev.

    1987;77(3):251-277.

     

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  13.           Powell V, Saloner B, Sabik LM. Cost sharing in Medicaid: Assumptions, evidence, and future directions.

    Med. Care Res. Rev. 2016;73(4):383-409.

     

    ← Return to text

  14.            Snyder L, Rudowitz R. Premiums and cost-sharing in Medicaid: A review of research findings. Kaiser

    Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured; 2013.

    https://www.kff.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/8417-premiums-and-cost-sharing-in-medicaid.pdf

     

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  15.             MACPAC. The effect of premiums and cost sharing on access and outcomes for low-income children.

    [Issue Brief]. 2015; https://www.macpac.gov/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Effect-of-Cost-Sharing-on-Low-Income-Children.pdf

     

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  16.            Wallace NT, McConnell KJ, Gallia CA, Smith JA. How effective are copayments in reducing expenditures for low-income adult Medicaid beneficiaries? Experience from the Oregon health plan. Health Serv. Res. 2008;43(2):515-530. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00824.x

     

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  17.           Subramanian S. Impact of Medicaid copayments on patients with cancer: Lessons for Medicaid expansion under health reform. Med. Care Res. Rev. 2011;49(9):842-847. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e31821b34db

     

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  18.          Wallace NT, McConnell KJ, Gallia CA, Smith JA. How effective are copayments in reducing expenditures for low-income adult Medicaid beneficiaries? Experience from the Oregon health plan. Health Serv. Res. 2008;43(2):515-530. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00824.x

     

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  19.            Snyder L, Rudowitz R. Premiums and cost-sharing in Medicaid: A review of research findings. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured; 2013. https://www.kff.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/8417-premiums-and-cost-sharing-in-medicaid.pdf

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  20.             State examples include California, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan,

    Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, Texas, Wisconsin, and West Virginia.

     

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  21.            MACPAC. The use of healthy behavior incentives in Medicaid. 2016; https://www.macpac.gov/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/The-Use-of-Healthy-Behavior-Incentives-in-Medicaid.pdf.

     

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  22.           MACPAC. The use of healthy behavior incentives in Medicaid. 2016; https://www.macpac.gov/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/The-Use-of-Healthy-Behavior-Incentives-in-Medicaid.pdf.

     

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  23.          Blumenthal KJ, Saulsgiver KA, Norton L, et al. Medicaid incentive programs to encourage healthy behavior show mixed results to date and should be studied and improved. Health Aff. (Millwood). 2013;32(3):497-507. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.0431

     

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  24.          Kane RL, Johnson PE, Town RJ, Butler M. A structured review of the effect of economic incentives on consumers' preventive behavior. Am. J. Prev. Med. 2004;27(4):327-352. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2004.07.002

     

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  25.           Blumenthal KJ, Saulsgiver KA, Norton L, et al. Medicaid incentive programs to encourage healthy behavior show mixed results to date and should be studied and improved. Health Aff. (Millwood). 2013;32(3):497-507. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.0431

     

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  26.          Lewin Group, Inc. Indiana Healthy Indiana Plan 2.0: Interim evaluation report. 2016. https://www.medicaid.gov/medicaid-chip-program-information/by-topics/waivers/1115/downloads/in/healthy-indiana-plan-2/in-healthy-indiana-plan-support-20-interim-evl-rpt-07062016.pdf

     

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  27.         U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Second report to Congress: Medicaid incentives for

    prevention of chronic diseases evaluation. 2016. https://innovation.cms.gov/Files/reports/mipcd-secondrtc.pdf

     

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  28.        U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Second report to Congress: Medicaid incentives for prevention of chronic diseases evaluation. 2016. https://innovation.cms.gov/Files/reports/mipcd-secondrtc.pdf

     

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  29.          Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Improving care for Medicaid beneficiaries with complex care needs and high costs. Baltimore, MD: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; 2017. https://www.medicaid.gov/state-resource-center/innovation-accelerator-program/beneficiaries-with-complex-needs/beneficiaries-with-complex-needs.html

     

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  30.           Mann C. Targeting Medicaid super-utilizers to decrease costs and improve quality [Internet]. Baltimore, MD: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. CMCS Informational Bulletin; 2013.

     

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  31.          Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Better care for super-utilizers. 2017. http://www.rwjf.org/en/library/collections/super-utilizers.html

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  32.         Williams BC. Limited effects of care management for high utilizers on total healthcare costs. Am. J. Manag. Care. 2015;21(4):e244-246.

     

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  33.        Williams BC. Limited effects of care management for high utilizers on total healthcare costs. Am. J. Manag. Care. 2015;21(4):e244-246.

     

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  34.        Raven MC, Kushel M, Ko MJ, Penko J, Bindman AB. The effectiveness of emergency department visit reduction programs: A systematic review. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2016;68(4):467-483 e415. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.04.015

     

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  35.         Williams BC. Limited effects of care management for high utilizers on total healthcare costs. Am. J. Manag. Care. 2015;21(4):e244-246.

     

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  36.        Hong CS, Siegel AL, Ferris TG. Caring for high-need, high-cost patients: what makes for a successful

    care management program. Issue Brief (Commonw Fund). 2014;19(1):9.

     

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  37.       McCarthy D, Ryan J, Klein S. Models of care for high-need, high-cost patients: an evidence synthesis. Issue Brief (Commonw Fund). 2015;31:1-19.

     

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  38.      Bodenheimer T. Strategies to reduce costs and improve care for high-utilizing Medicaid patients:

    reflections on pioneering programs. 2013.

     

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  39.        Raven MC, Kushel M, Ko MJ, Penko J, Bindman AB. The effectiveness of emergency department visit reduction programs: A systematic review. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2016;68(4):467-483 e415. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.04.015

     

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  40.             Hong CS, Siegel AL, Ferris TG. Caring for high-need, high-cost patients: what makes for a successful care management program. Issue Brief (Commonw Fund). 2014;19(1):9.

     

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  41.            Bodenheimer T. Strategies to reduce costs and improve care for high-utilizing Medicaid patients: reflections on pioneering programs. 2013.

     

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  42.           Xing J, Goehring C, Mancuso D. Care coordination program for Washington State Medicaid enrollees

    reduced inpatient hospital costs. Health Aff. (Millwood). 2015;34(4):653-661. doi:

    10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0655

     

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  43.          Bell J, Mancuso D, Krupski T. A randomized controlled trial of King County Care Partners’ Rethinking

    Care Intervention: health and social outcomes up to two years post-randomization.  2012. http://www.chcs.org/resource/randomized-controlled-trial-of-king-county-care-partners-rethinking-care-intervention-health-and-social-outcomes-up-to-two-years-post-randomization/

     

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  44.           Kim SE, Michalopoulos C, Kwong RM, Warren A, Manno MS. Telephone care management's effectiveness in coordinating care for Medicaid beneficiaries in managed care: A randomized controlled study. Health Serv. Res. 2013;48(5):1730-1749. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12060

     

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  45.            Peikes D, Chen A, Schore J, Brown R. Effects of care coordination on hospitalization, quality of care,

    and health care expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries: 15 randomized trials. JAMA. 2009;301(6):603-618. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.126

     

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  46.           Peikes D, Chen A, Schore J, Brown R. Effects of care coordination on hospitalization, quality of care,

    and health care expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries: 15 randomized trials. JAMA. 2009;301(6):603-618. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.126

     

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  47.          Cohen A. SoonerCare Health Management program evaluation. Oklahoma Health Care Authority. Prepared for State of Oklahoma; 2013.

     

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  48.         Bell J, Mancuso D, Krupski T. A randomized controlled trial of King County Care Partners’ Rethinking

    Care Intervention: health and social outcomes up to two years post-randomization.  2012. http://www.chcs.org/resource/randomized-controlled-trial-of-king-county-care-partners-rethinking-care-intervention-health-and-social-outcomes-up-to-two-years-post-randomization/

     

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  49.           Cohen A. SoonerCare Health Management program evaluation. Oklahoma Health Care Authority. Prepared for State of Oklahoma; 2013.

     

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  50.               Xing J, Goehring C, Mancuso D. Care coordination program for Washington State Medicaid enrollees reduced inpatient hospital costs. Health Aff. (Millwood). 2015;34(4):653-661. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0655

     

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  51.              Cohen A. SoonerCare Health Management program evaluation. Oklahoma Health Care Authority. Prepared for State of Oklahoma; 2013.

     

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  52.              Peikes D, Chen A, Schore J, Brown R. Effects of care coordination on hospitalization, quality of care,

    and health care expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries: 15 randomized trials. JAMA. 2009;301(6):603-618. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.126

     

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  53.            Burt M, Wilkins C, Locke G. Medicaid and permanent supportive housing for chronically homeless individuals: Emerging practices from the field. 2014; https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/77116/EmergPrac.pdf.

     

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  54.            Raven MC, Kushel M, Ko MJ, Penko J, Bindman AB. The effectiveness of emergency department visit reduction programs: A systematic review. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2016;68(4):467-483 e415. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.04.015

     

    ← Return to text

  55.             Bodenheimer T. Strategies to reduce costs and improve care for high-utilizing Medicaid patients: reflections on pioneering programs. 2013.

     

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  56.            Wright BJ, Vartanian KB, Li HF, Royal N, Matson JK. Formerly homeless people had lower overall health care expenditures after moving into supportive housing. Health Aff. (Millwood). 2016;35(1):20-27. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2015.0393

     

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  57.           Cassidy A. Medicaid and permanent supportive housing. Medicaid offers opportunities to address supportive housing needs, but challenges remain. Health Affairs/Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Policy Brief; 2016, October 14. http://healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief_pdfs/healthpolicybrief_164.pdf

     

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  58.          National Conference of State Legislatures. Health Cost Containment and Efficiencies: NCLS Briefs for

    State Legislators.  2011.

     

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  59.            National Academy for State Health Policy. State delivery system and payment reform map. Washington, DC: National Academy for State Health Policy; 2017. http://nashp.org/state-delivery-system-payment-reform-map/

     

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  60.             Takach M. About half of the states are implementing patient-centered medical homes for their Medicaid populations. Health Aff. (Millwood). 2012;31(11):2432-2440. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.0447

     

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  61.            Cole ES, Campbell C, Diana ML, Webber L, Culbertson R. Patient-centered medical homes in Louisiana had minimal impact on Medicaid population's use of acute care and costs. Health Aff. (Millwood). 2015;34(1):87-94. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0582

     

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  62.           Shane DM, Nguyen-Hoang P, Bentler SE, Damiano PC, Momany ET. Medicaid health home reducing costs and reliance on emergency department: evidence from Iowa. Med. Care Res. Rev. 2016;54(8):752-757. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000555

     

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  63.          Cole ES, Campbell C, Diana ML, Webber L, Culbertson R. Patient-centered medical homes in Louisiana

    had minimal impact on Medicaid population's use of acute care and costs. Health Aff.

    (Millwood). 2015;34(1):87-94. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0582

     

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  64.           Shane DM, Nguyen-Hoang P, Bentler SE, Damiano PC, Momany ET. Medicaid health home reducing costs and reliance on emergency department: evidence from Iowa. Med. Care Res. Rev. 2016;54(8):752-757. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000555

     

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  65.            Reid RJ, Coleman K, Johnson EA, et al. The Group Health medical home at year two: Cost savings,

    higher patient satisfaction, and less burnout for providers. Health Aff.(Millwood).

    2010;29(5):835-843. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0158

     

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  66.           Dale SB, Ghosh A, Peikes DN, et al. Two-year costs and quality in the comprehensive primary care initiative. N. Engl. J. Med. 2016;374(24):2345-2356. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1414953

     

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  67.          Jones C, Finison K, McGraves-Lloyd K, et al. Vermont's community-oriented all-payer medical home model reduces expenditures and utilization while delivering high-quality care. Popul. Health Manag. 2016;19(3):196-205. doi: 10.1089/pop.2015.0055

     

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  68.         Kahn KL, Timbie JW, Friedberg MW, Lavelle TA. Evaluation of CMS FQHC APCP Demonstration: Second annual report. 2015; https://innovation.cms.gov/Files/reports/fqhc-scndevalrpt.pdf.

     

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  69.           Maeng DD, Khan N, Tomcavage J, Graf TR, Davis DE, Steele GD. Reduced acute inpatient care was largest savings component of Geisinger Health System's patient-centered medical home. Health Aff. (Millwood). 2015;34(4):636-644. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0855

     

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  70.            Nichols D, Haber S, Romaire M, Wiener J. Evaluation of the Multi-Payer Advanced Primary Care

    Practice (MAPCP) Demonstration Second Annual Report.  2016. https://downloads.cms.gov/files/cmmi/mapcp-secondevalrpt.pdf

     

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  71.           Rosenthal MB, Alidina S, Friedberg MW, et al. Impact of the Cincinnati aligning forces for quality multi-payer patient centered medical home pilot on health care quality, utilization, and costs. Med. Care Res. Rev. 2016;73(5):532-545. doi: 10.1177/1077558715618566

     

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  72.          Rosenthal MB, Alidina S, Friedberg MW, et al. A difference-in-difference analysis of changes in quality, utilization and cost following the Colorado multi-payer patient-centered Medical home pilot. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 2016;31(3):289-296. doi: 10.1007/s11606-015-3521-1

     

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  73.         Rosenthal MB, Sinaiko AD, Eastman D, Chapman B, Partridge G. Impact of the Rochester medical home initiative on primary care practices, quality, utilization, and costs. Med. Care Res. Rev. 2015;53(11):967-973. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000424

     

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  74.         Jackson GL, Powers BJ, Chatterjee R, et al. Improving patient care. The patient centered medical home. A Systematic Review. Ann. Intern. Med. 2013;158(3):169-178. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-3-201302050-00579

     

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  75.          Peikes D, Zutshi A, Genevro JL, Parchman ML, Meyers DS. Early evaluations of the medical home: Building on a promising start. Am. J. Manag. Care. 2012;18(2):105-116.

     

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  76.         Sinaiko AD, Landrum MB, Meyers DJ, et al. Synthesis of research on patient-centered medical homes

    brings systematic differences into relief. Health Aff. (Millwood). 2017;36(3):500-508. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2016.1235

     

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  77.        Shane DM, Nguyen-Hoang P, Bentler SE, Damiano PC, Momany ET. Medicaid health home reducing costs and reliance on emergency department: evidence from Iowa. Med. Care Res. Rev. 2016;54(8):752-757. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000555

     

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  78.       Jackson GL, Powers BJ, Chatterjee R, et al. Improving patient care. The patient centered medical home.

    A Systematic Review. Ann. Intern. Med. 2013;158(3):169-178. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-3-201302050-00579

     

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  79.         Sinaiko AD, Landrum MB, Meyers DJ, et al. Synthesis of research on patient-centered medical homes

    brings systematic differences into relief. Health Aff. (Millwood). 2017;36(3):500-508. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2016.1235

     

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  80.          Rhodes KV, Basseyn S, Gallop R, Noll E, Rothbard A, Crits-Christoph P. Pennsylvania's medical home initiative: Reductions in healthcare utilization and cost among Medicaid patients with medical and psychiatric comorbidities. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 2016;31(11):1373-1381. doi: 10.1007/s11606-016-3734-y

     

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  81.         Dale SB, Ghosh A, Peikes DN, et al. Two-year costs and quality in the comprehensive primary care initiative. N. Engl. J. Med. 2016;374(24):2345-2356. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1414953

     

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  82.        Kahn KL, Timbie JW, Friedberg MW, Lavelle TA. Evaluation of CMS FQHC APCP Demonstration: Second annual report. 2015; https://innovation.cms.gov/Files/reports/fqhc-scndevalrpt.pdf.

     

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  83.       Nichols D, Haber S, Romaire M, Wiener J. Evaluation of the Multi-Payer Advanced Primary Care Practice (MAPCP) Demonstration Second Annual Report.  2016. https://downloads.cms.gov/files/cmmi/mapcp-secondevalrpt.pdf

     

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  84.       Dale SB, Ghosh A, Peikes DN, et al. Two-year costs and quality in the comprehensive primary care

    initiative. N. Engl. J. Med. 2016;374(24):2345-2356. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1414953

     

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  85.        Kahn KL, Timbie JW, Friedberg MW, Lavelle TA. Evaluation of CMS FQHC APCP Demonstration:

    Second annual report. 2015; https://innovation.cms.gov/Files/reports/fqhc-scndevalrpt.pdf

     

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  86.       Nichols D, Haber S, Romaire M, Wiener J. Evaluation of the Multi-Payer Advanced Primary Care Practice (MAPCP) Demonstration Second Annual Report.  2016. https://downloads.cms.gov/files/cmmi/mapcp-secondevalrpt.pdf

     

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  87.      Shane DM, Nguyen-Hoang P, Bentler SE, Damiano PC, Momany ET. Medicaid health home reducing

    costs and reliance on emergency department: evidence from Iowa. Med. Care Res.

    Rev.2016;54(8):752-757. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000555

     

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  88.     Nichols D, Haber S, Romaire M, Wiener J. Evaluation of the Multi-Payer Advanced Primary Care Practice (MAPCP) Demonstration Second Annual Report.  2016. https://downloads.cms.gov/files/cmmi/mapcp-secondevalrpt.pdf

     

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  89.       Ormond B, Richardson E, Spillman B, Feder J. Health homes in Medicaid: The promise and the challenge. 2014; http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/32541/413032-Health-Homes-in-Medicaid-The-Promise-and-the-Challenge.PDF.

     

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  90.             National Academy for State Health Policy. State delivery system and payment reform map. Washington, DC: National Academy for State Health Policy; 2017. http://nashp.org/state-delivery-system-payment-reform-map/

     

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  91.            Spillman B, Allen E, Spencer A. Evaluation of the Medicaid health home option for beneficiaries with chronic conditions: annual report - year three. 2015; https://aspe.hhs.gov/basic-report/evaluation-medicaid-health-home-option-beneficiaries-chronic-conditions-annual-report-year-three. Accessed June 13, 2017.

     

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  92.           Shane DM, Nguyen-Hoang P, Bentler SE, Damiano PC, Momany ET. Medicaid health home reducing costs and reliance on emergency department: evidence from Iowa. Med. Care Res. Rev. 2016;54(8):752-757. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000555

     

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  93.          Lewin Group, Inc. Maine state innovation model self evaluation: Year three final report. 2016. http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/sim/evaluation/documents/ME%20SIM%20Self%20Evaluation%202016%20Final%20Report%2012.21.16.pdf

     

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  94.          National Conference of State Legislatures. Health Cost Containment and Efficiencies: NCLS Briefs for State Legislators.  2011.

     

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  95.           Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc. Medicaid ACO programs: promising results from leading-edge states. Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc.; 2017. http://www.chcs.org/media/MedicaidACOProgramsWebinar_01.17.17.pdf

     

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  96.          Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc. Medicaid ACO programs: promising results from leading-edge states. Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc.; 2017. http://www.chcs.org/media/MedicaidACOProgramsWebinar_01.17.17.pdf

     

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  97.         McWilliams JM, Hatfield LA, Chernew ME, Landon BE, Schwartz AL. Early performance of accountable care organizations in Medicare. N. Engl. J. Med. 2016;374(24):2357-2366. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1600142

     

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  98.        McWilliams JM, Landon BE, Chernew ME. Performance in year 1 of Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations. N. Engl. J. Med. 2015;373(8):777. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1507320

     

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  99.          Nyweide DJ, Lee W, Cuerdon TT, et al. Association of Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations vs traditional Medicare fee for service with spending, utilization, and patient experience. JAMA. 2015;313(21):2152-2161. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.4930

     

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  100.               Muhlestein D, Saunders R, McClellan M. Medicare accountable care organization results for 2015: The

    journey to better quality and lower costs continues. Health Affairs Blog. 2016.

     

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  101.              Muhlestein D, Saunders R, McClellan M. Medicare accountable care organization results for 2015: The

    journey to better quality and lower costs continues. Health Affairs Blog. 2016.

     

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