Effects of the ACA Medicaid Expansion on Racial Disparities in Health and Health Care

Issue Brief
  1. Studies measured effects on racial and ethnic disparities in several ways, including assessing whether modeled effects of Medicaid expansion were larger for people of color compared to White people, comparing trends in expansion vs. non-expansion states by race and ethnicity, and examining trends within an expansion state by race and ethnicity.

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  2. Ankit Agarwal, Aaron Katz, and Ronald Chen, “The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Disparities in Private and Medicaid Insurance Coverage among Patients Under 65 with Newly Diagnosed Cancer, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics (May 2019), https://www.redjournal.org/article/S0360-3016(19)30783-7/pdf

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  3. John Heintzman, Steffani Bailey, Jennifer DeVoe, Stuart Cowburn, Tanya Kapka, Truc-Vi Duong, and Miguel Marino, “In Low-Income Latino Patients, Post-Affordable Care Act Insurance Disparities May Be Reduced Even More than Broader National Estimates: Evidence from Oregon,” Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities (April 2016), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27105630

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  4. Brandy Lipton, Sandra Decker, and Benjamin Sommers, “The Affordable Care Act Appears to Have Narrowed Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Insurance Coverage and Access to Care Among Young Adults” Medical Care Research and Review 76, no.1 (April 2017): 32–55, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29148341

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  5. George Wehby and Wei Lyu, “The Impact of the ACA Medicaid Expansions on Health Insurance Coverage through 2015 and Coverage Disparities by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender” Health Services Research epub ahead of print (May 2017), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-6773.12711/abstract

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  6. Archana Babu et al., "The Affordable Care Act: Implications for Underserved Populations with Head & Neck Cancer," American Journal of Otolaryngology 41, no. 4 (July-August 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102464

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  7. Thomas Buchmueller, Zachary Levinson, Helen Levy, and Barbara Wolfe, “Effect of the Affordable Care Act on Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Insurance Coverage,” American Journal of Public Health (May 2016), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27196653

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  8. Fumiko Chino, Gita Suneja, Haley Moss, S. Yousuf Zafar, Laura Havrilesky, and Junzo Chino, “Healthcare Disparities in Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation: Changes in Insurance Status After Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology (December 2017), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360301617341883

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  9. Charles Courtemanche, James Marton, Benjamin Ukert, Aaron Yelowitz, and Daniela Zapata, Impacts of the Affordable Care Act on Health Insurance Coverage in Medicaid Expansion and Non-Expansion States (Working Paper No. 22182, The National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2016), http://www.nber.org/papers/w22182

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  10. Charles Courtemanche, James Marton, Benjamin Ukert, Aaron Yelowitz, Daniela Zapata, and Ishtiaque Fazlul, “The Three‐Year Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Disparities in Insurance Coverage,” Health Services Research (October 2018), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-6773.13077

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  11. Sergio Gonzales and Benjamin Sommers, “Intra-Ethnic Coverage Disparities among Latinos and the Effects of Health Reform” Health Services Research epub ahead of print (June 2017), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/1475-6773.12733/full

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  12. Xuesong Han, Robin Yabroff, Elizabeth Ward, Otis Brawley, and Ahmedin Jemal, “Comparison of Insurance Status and Diagnosis Stage Among Patients With Newly Diagnosed Cancer Before vs After Implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act,” JAMA Oncology 4, no. 12 (August 2018): 1713-1720, https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaoncology/article-abstract/2697226

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  13. Susan Hayes, Pamela Riley, David Radley, and Douglas McCarthy, Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Care: Has the Affordable Care Act Made a Difference? (The Commonwealth Fund, August 2017), https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2017/aug/reducing-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-access-care-has

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  14. John Heintzman, Steffani Bailey, Jennifer DeVoe, Stuart Cowburn, Tanya Kapka, Truc-Vi Duong, and Miguel Marino, “In Low-Income Latino Patients, Post-Affordable Care Act Insurance Disparities May Be Reduced Even More than Broader National Estimates: Evidence from Oregon,” Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities (April 2016), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27105630

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  15. Manzilat Akande, Peter Minneci, Katherine Deans, Henry Xiang, Deena Chisolm, and Jennifer Cooper, “Effects Of Medicaid Expansion On Disparities In Trauma Care And Outcomes In Young Adults,” Journal of Surgical Research 228 (August 2018): 42-53, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022480418301562

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  16. Kelsey Avery, Kenneth Finegold, and Amelia Whitman, Affordable Care Act Has Led to Historic, Widespread Increase in Health Insurance Coverage (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, September 2016), https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/207946/ACAHistoricIncreaseCoverage.pdf

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  17. Charles J. Courtemanche et al., The Impact of the ACA on Insurance Coverage Disparities After Four
    Years
    (National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No. 26157, August 2019),
    http://www.nber.org/papers/w26157

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  18. Jesse C. Baumgartner, Sara R. Collins, David C. Radley, and Susan L. Hayes, How the Affordable Care Act Has Narrowed Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Health Care (The Commonwealth Fund, January 2020), https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/2020/jan/how-ACA-narrowedracial-ethnic-disparities-access

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  19. Scott R. Sanders et al., "Infants Without Health Insurance: Racial/Ethnic and Rural/Urban Disparities in Infant Households' Insurance Coverage," PLoS One 15, no. 1 (January 2020), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222387

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  20. Amandeep R. Mahal et al., "Early Impact of the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid Expansion on Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in Cancer Care," American Journal of Clinical Oncology Epub ahead of print (January 2020), https://doi.org/10.1097/coc.0000000000000588

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  21. David Barrington et. al., "Where You Live Matters: A National Cancer Database Study of Medicaid Expansion and Endometrial Cancer Outcomes," Gynecologic Oncology Epub ahead of print (June 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.05.018

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  22. Thomas Buchmueller and Helen Levy, "The ACA's Impact On Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Health Insurance Coverage And Access To Care," Health Affairs 39, no. 3 (March 2020): 395-402, https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2019.01394

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  23. Kelsey Avery, Kenneth Finegold, and Amelia Whitman, Affordable Care Act Has Led to Historic, Widespread Increase in Health Insurance Coverage (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, September 2016), https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/207946/ACAHistoricIncreaseCoverage.pdf

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  24. Ankit Agarwal, Aaron Katz, and Ronald Chen, “The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Disparities in Private and Medicaid Insurance Coverage among Patients Under 65 with Newly Diagnosed Cancer, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics (May 2019), https://www.redjournal.org/article/S0360-3016(19)30783-7/pdf

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  25. Michael Dworsky and Christine Eibner, The Effect of the 2014 Medicaid Expansion on Insurance Coverage for Newly Eligible Childless Adults (Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 2016), https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1736.htm

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  26. Nevada’s Medicaid Population, (Las Vegas, NV: The Guinn Center, September 2019), https://guinncenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Guinn-Center-NV-Medicaid-PopulationCharacteristics-2019.pdf

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  27. Sergio Gonzales and Benjamin Sommers, “Intra-Ethnic Coverage Disparities among Latinos and the Effects of Health Reform” Health Services Research epub ahead of print (June 2017), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/1475-6773.12733/full

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  28. John Heintzman, Steffani Bailey, Jennifer DeVoe, Stuart Cowburn, Tanya Kapka, Truc-Vi Duong, and Miguel Marino, “In Low-Income Latino Patients, Post-Affordable Care Act Insurance Disparities May Be Reduced Even More than Broader National Estimates: Evidence from Oregon,” Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities (April 2016), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27105630

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  29. George Wehby and Wei Lyu, “The Impact of the ACA Medicaid Expansions on Health Insurance Coverage through 2015 and Coverage Disparities by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender” Health Services Research epub ahead of print (May 2017), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-6773.12711/abstract

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  30. Ankit Agarwal, Aaron Katz, and Ronald Chen, “The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Disparities in Private and Medicaid Insurance Coverage among Patients Under 65 with Newly Diagnosed Cancer, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics (May 2019), https://www.redjournal.org/article/S0360-3016(19)30783-7/pdf

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  31. Fumiko Chino, Gita Suneja, Haley Moss, S. Yousuf Zafar, Laura Havrilesky, and Junzo Chino, “Healthcare Disparities in Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation: Changes in Insurance Status After Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology (December 2017), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360301617341883

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  32. Xuesong Han, Robin Yabroff, Elizabeth Ward, Otis Brawley, and Ahmedin Jemal, “Comparison of Insurance Status and Diagnosis Stage Among Patients With Newly Diagnosed Cancer Before vs After Implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act,” JAMA Oncology 4, no. 12 (August 2018): 1713-1720, https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaoncology/article-abstract/2697226

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  33. Amandeep R. Mahal et al., "Early Impact of the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid Expansion on Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in Cancer Care," American Journal of Clinical Oncology Epub ahead of print (January 2020), https://doi.org/10.1097/coc.0000000000000588

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  34. Archana Babu et al., "The Affordable Care Act: Implications for Underserved Populations with Head & Neck Cancer," American Journal of Otolaryngology 41, no. 4 (July-August 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102464

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  35. David Barrington et. al., "Where You Live Matters: A National Cancer Database Study of Medicaid Expansion and Endometrial Cancer Outcomes," Gynecologic Oncology Epub ahead of print (June 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.05.018

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  36. Hyunjung Lee and Frank Porell, “The Effect of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion on Disparities in Access to Care and Health Status,” Medical Care Research and Review epub ahead of print (October 2018), https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1077558718808709?rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed&url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&journalCode=mcrd

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  37. Brendan Saloner, Rachel Landis, Bradley Stein, and Colleen Barry, “The Affordable Care Act in the Heart of the Opioid Crisis: Evidence from West Virginia,” Health Affairs 38, no. 4 (April 2019), https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05049

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  38. Susan Hayes, Pamela Riley, David Radley, and Douglas McCarthy, Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Care: Has the Affordable Care Act Made a Difference? (The Commonwealth Fund, August 2017), http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2017/aug/racial-ethnicdisparities-care

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  39. Brandy Lipton, Sandra Decker, and Benjamin Sommers, “The Affordable Care Act Appears to Have Narrowed Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Insurance Coverage and Access to Care Among Young Adults” Medical Care Research and Review 76, no.1 (April 2017): 32–55, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29148341

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  40. Dahai Yue, Petra Rasmussen, and Ninez Ponce, “Racial/Ethnic Differential Effects of Medicaid Expansion on Health Care Access,” Health Services Research (February 2018), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-6773.12834/abstract

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  41. Andrew Crocker et al., “Expansion Coverage And Preferential Utilization Of Cancer Surgery Among Racial And Ethnic Minorities And Low-Income Groups,” Surgery epub ahead of print (June 2019), https://www.surgjournal.com/article/S0039-6060(19)30198-9/fulltext

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  42. Nathalie Huguet et al., “Cervical And Colorectal Cancer Screening Prevalence Before And After Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion,” Preventative Medicine (May 2019), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.05.003

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  43. James McDermott et al., “Affordable Care Act's Medicaid Expansion and Use of Regionalized Surgery at High-Volume Hospitals,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons 227, no. 5 (November 2018): 507-520.e9, https://www.journalacs.org/article/S1072-7515(18)31993-8/abstrac

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  44. Afshin Ehsan et al., "Utilization of Left Ventricular Assist Devices in Vulnerable Adults Across Medicaid Expansion," Journal of Surgical Research 243 (November 2019): 503-508, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.05.015

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  45. Kelsie M. Gould et al., "Bariatric Surgery Among Vulnerable Populations: The Effect of the Affordable Care Act's Medicaid Expansion," Surgery 166, no. 5 (November 2019): 820-828, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.05.005

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  46. Nadia Laniado, Avery R. Brow, Eric Tranby, and Victor M. Badner, "Trends in Non-Traumatic Dental Emergency Department Use in New York and New Jersey: A Look at Medicaid Expansion from Both Sides of the Hudson River," Journal of Public Health Dentistry Epub ahead of print (October 2019), https://doi.org/10.1111/jphd.12343

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  47. Khadijah Breathett et al., “The Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion Correlated with Increased Heart Transplant Listings in African Americans but Not Hispanics or Caucasians,” JACC: Heart Failure 5 no. 2 (January 2017): 136-147, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28109783

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  48. Yasmin Zerhouni et al., “Effect of Medicaid Expansion on Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates,” Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 62, no. 1 (January 2019): 97-103, https://journals.lww.com/dcrjournal/Abstract/2019/01000/Effect_of_Medicaid_Expansion
    _on_Colorectal_Cancer.16.aspx

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  49. David Barrington et. al., "Where You Live Matters: A National Cancer Database Study of Medicaid Expansion and Endometrial Cancer Outcomes," Gynecologic Oncology Epub ahead of print (June 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.05.018

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  50. Khadijah Breathett et al., "Is the Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion Linked to Change in Rate of Ventricular Assist Device Implantation for Blacks and Whites?" Circulation: Heart Failure 13, no. 4 (April 2020), https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006544

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  51. Thomas Buchmueller and Helen Levy, "The ACA's Impact On Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Health Insurance Coverage And Access To Care," Health Affairs 39, no. 3 (March 2020): 395-402, https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2019.01394

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  52. Justin Le Blanc, Danielle Heller, Ann Friedrich, Donald Lannin, and Tristen Park, "Association of Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act With Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis," JAMA Surgery (July 2020), https://doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2020.1495

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  53. Miguel Marino et al., "Disparities in Biomarkers for Patients With Diabetes After the Affordable Care Act," Medical Care 58 (June 2020), https://doi.org/10.1097/mlr.0000000000001257

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  54. Brendan Saloner, Rachel Landis, Bradley Stein, and Colleen Barry, “The Affordable Care Act in the Heart of the Opioid Crisis: Evidence from West Virginia,” Health Affairs 38, no. 4 (April 2019), https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05049

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  55. Susan Hayes, Pamela Riley, David Radley, and Douglas McCarthy, Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Care: Has the Affordable Care Act Made a Difference? (The Commonwealth Fund, August 2017), http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2017/aug/racial-ethnicdisparities-care

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  56. Dahai Yue, Petra Rasmussen, and Ninez Ponce, “Racial/Ethnic Differential Effects of Medicaid Expansion on Health Care Access,” Health Services Research (February 2018), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-6773.12834/abstract

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  57. Xuesong Han et al., "Changes in Noninsurance and Care Unaffordability Among Cancer Survivors Following the Affordable Care Act," Journal of the National Cancer Institute Epub ahead of print (November 2019), https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz218

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  58. Jesse C. Baumgartner, Sara R. Collins, David C. Radley, and Susan L. Hayes, How the Affordable Care Act Has Narrowed Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Health Care (The Commonwealth Fund, January 2020), https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/2020/jan/how-ACA-narrowedracial-ethnic-disparities-access

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  59. Thomas Buchmueller and Helen Levy, "The ACA's Impact On Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Health Insurance Coverage And Access To Care," Health Affairs 39, no. 3 (March 2020): 395-402, https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2019.01394

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  60. Susan Hayes, Pamela Riley, David Radley, and Douglas McCarthy, Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Care: Has the Affordable Care Act Made a Difference? (The Commonwealth Fund, August 2017), https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2017/aug/reducing-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-access-care-has

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  61. Hyunjung Lee and Frank Porell, “The Effect of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion on Disparities in Access to Care and Health Status,” Medical Care Research and Review epub ahead of print (October 2018), https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1077558718808709?rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed&url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&journalCode=mcrd

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  62. Brandy Lipton, Sandra Decker, and Benjamin Sommers, “The Affordable Care Act Appears to Have Narrowed Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Insurance Coverage and Access to Care Among Young Adults” Medical Care Research and Review 76, no.1 (April 2017): 32–55, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29148341

    ← Return to text

  63. Dahai Yue, Petra Rasmussen, and Ninez Ponce, “Racial/Ethnic Differential Effects of Medicaid Expansion on Health Care Access,” Health Services Research (February 2018), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-6773.12834/abstract

    ← Return to text

  64. Thomas Buchmueller and Helen Levy, "The ACA's Impact On Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Health Insurance Coverage And Access To Care," Health Affairs 39, no. 3 (March 2020): 395-402, https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2019.01394

    ← Return to text

  65. Jesse C. Baumgartner, Sara R. Collins, David C. Radley, and Susan L. Hayes, How the Affordable Care Act Has Narrowed Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Health Care (The Commonwealth Fund, January 2020), https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/2020/jan/how-ACA-narrowedracial-ethnic-disparities-access

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  66. Hyunjung Lee and Frank Porell, “The Effect of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion on Disparities in Access to Care and Health Status,” Medical Care Research and Review epub ahead of print (October 2018), https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1077558718808709?rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed&url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&journalCode=mcrd

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  67. Jesse C. Baumgartner, Sara R. Collins, David C. Radley, and Susan L. Hayes, How the Affordable Care Act Has Narrowed Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Health Care (The Commonwealth Fund, January 2020), https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/2020/jan/how-ACA-narrowedracial-ethnic-disparities-access

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  68. Susan Hayes, Sara Collins, David Radley, and Douglas McCarthy, What’s at Stake: States’ Progress on Health Coverage and Access to Care, 2013-2016 (The Commonwealth Fund, December 2017), http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2017/dec/states-progress-health-coverageand-access

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  69. Susan Hayes, Pamela Riley, David Radley, and Douglas McCarthy, Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Care: Has the Affordable Care Act Made a Difference? (The Commonwealth Fund, August 2017), http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2017/aug/racial-ethnicdisparities-care

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  70. Dahai Yue, Petra Rasmussen, and Ninez Ponce, “Racial/Ethnic Differential Effects of Medicaid Expansion on Health Care Access,” Health Services Research (February 2018), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-6773.12834/abstract

    ← Return to text

  71. Xuesong Han et al., "Changes in Noninsurance and Care Unaffordability Among Cancer Survivors Following the Affordable Care Act," Journal of the National Cancer Institute Epub ahead of print (November 2019), https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz218

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  72. Jesse C. Baumgartner, Sara R. Collins, David C. Radley, and Susan L. Hayes, How the Affordable Care Act Has Narrowed Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Health Care (The Commonwealth Fund, January 2020), https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/2020/jan/how-ACA-narrowedracial-ethnic-disparities-access

    ← Return to text

  73. Thomas Buchmueller and Helen Levy, "The ACA's Impact On Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Health Insurance Coverage And Access To Care," Health Affairs 39, no. 3 (March 2020): 395-402, https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2019.01394

    ← Return to text

  74. Andrew Crocker et al., “Expansion Coverage And Preferential Utilization Of Cancer Surgery Among Racial And Ethnic Minorities And Low-Income Groups,” Surgery epub ahead of print (June 2019), https://www.surgjournal.com/article/S0039-6060(19)30198-9/fulltext

    ← Return to text

  75. Nathalie Huguet et al., “Cervical And Colorectal Cancer Screening Prevalence Before And After Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion,” Preventative Medicine (May 2019), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.05.003

    ← Return to text

  76. David Barrington et. al., "Where You Live Matters: A National Cancer Database Study of Medicaid Expansion and Endometrial Cancer Outcomes," Gynecologic Oncology Epub ahead of print (June 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.05.018

    ← Return to text

  77. Justin Le Blanc, Danielle Heller, Ann Friedrich, Donald Lannin, and Tristen Park, "Association of Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act With Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis," JAMA Surgery (July 2020), https://doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2020.1495

    ← Return to text

  78. Dahai Yue, Petra Rasmussen, and Ninez Ponce, “Racial/Ethnic Differential Effects of Medicaid Expansion on Health Care Access,” Health Services Research (February 2018), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-6773.12834/abstract

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  79. Yunwei Gai and John Marthinsen, "Medicaid Expansion, HIV Testing, and HIV-Related Risk Behaviors in the United States, 2010-2017," American Journal of Public Health 109, no. 10 (October 2019): 1404- 1412, https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2019.305220

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  80. Cheryl Zogg et al., “Impact of Affordable Care Act Insurance Expansion on Pre-Hospital Access to Care: Changes in Adult Perforated Appendix Admission Rates after Medicaid Expansion and the Dependent Coverage Provision,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons 228, no. 1 (January 2019): 29-43, https://www.journalacs.org/article/S1072-7515(18)32078-7/fulltext

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  81. Andrew Crocker et al., “Expansion Coverage And Preferential Utilization Of Cancer Surgery Among Racial And Ethnic Minorities And Low-Income Groups,” Surgery epub ahead of print (June 2019), https://www.surgjournal.com/article/S0039-6060(19)30198-9/fulltext

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  82. James McDermott et al., “Affordable Care Act's Medicaid Expansion and Use of Regionalized Surgery at High-Volume Hospitals,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons 227, no. 5 (November 2018): 507-520.e9, https://www.journalacs.org/article/S1072-7515(18)31993-8/abstrac

    ← Return to text

  83. Kelsie M. Gould et al., "Bariatric Surgery Among Vulnerable Populations: The Effect of the Affordable Care Act's Medicaid Expansion," Surgery 166, no. 5 (November 2019): 820-828, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.05.005

    ← Return to text

  84. Afshin Ehsan et al., "Utilization of Left Ventricular Assist Devices in Vulnerable Adults Across Medicaid Expansion," Journal of Surgical Research 243 (November 2019): 503-508, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.05.015

    ← Return to text

  85. Khadijah Breathett et al., "Is the Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion Linked to Change in Rate of Ventricular Assist Device Implantation for Blacks and Whites?" Circulation: Heart Failure 13, no. 4 (April 2020), https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006544

    ← Return to text

  86. Khadijah Breathett et al., “The Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion Correlated with Increased Heart Transplant Listings in African Americans but Not Hispanics or Caucasians,” JACC: Heart Failure 5 no. 2 (January 2017): 136-147, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28109783

    ← Return to text

  87. Brendan Saloner, Rachel Landis, Bradley Stein, and Colleen Barry, “The Affordable Care Act in the Heart of the Opioid Crisis: Evidence from West Virginia,” Health Affairs 38, no. 4 (April 2019), https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05049

    ← Return to text

  88. Nadia Laniado, Avery R. Brow, Eric Tranby, and Victor M. Badner, "Trends in Non-Traumatic Dental Emergency Department Use in New York and New Jersey: A Look at Medicaid Expansion from Both Sides of the Hudson River," Journal of Public Health Dentistry Epub ahead of print (October 2019), https://doi.org/10.1111/jphd.12343

    ← Return to text

  89. Khadijah Breathett et al., “The Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion Correlated with Increased Heart Transplant Listings in African Americans but Not Hispanics or Caucasians,” JACC: Heart Failure 5 no. 2 (January 2017): 136-147, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28109783

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