When you apply for the premium tax credit, you will be asked to estimate your expected income for the upcoming year. Often a good place to start is to consider what your income is this year, or what income you reported on your tax return last year. However, if your circumstances have changed since then, for example, if you recently lost your job, you should make your best estimate of what your income will be next year.
As you estimate income for this year, be sure to take into account unemployment benefits you will receive in the year. During the COVID-19 crisis, some working people (such as self-employed) who did not used to be eligible for unemployment benefits can now receive them. Contact your state Unemployment Office for more information. In addition, during the COVID-19 crisis, unemployment benefits were temporarily increased by $600 per week through July; smaller supplements continued in some states after July. When you apply for premium tax credits, be sure to include information about the unemployment benefits you expect to collect in 2020.
The health insurance Marketplace will compare your income estimates against records at the Internal Revenue Service, Social Security Administration and other sources. If your estimate and official records don’t match, or aren’t sufficiently close, but you meet all other eligibility requirements, you might be asked to provide documentation to support your income projections.
In general, if the income amount shown on that official record is more than 25% or $6,000 (whichever is greater) higher than the amount you put on your application, you might receive a data match inconsistency notice from the Marketplace and you’ll need to provide more documentation.
If you don’t have that documentation handy, the Marketplace will provide subsidies for up to 90 days while you gather and submit your documentation for verification. It is very important that you provide any documentation requested by the Marketplace in a timely manner; if you don’t your subsidies might be reduced or terminated.
Keep in mind that if you estimate your income incorrectly and end up claiming more help than you are eligible for, you may have to pay back some or all of the premium tax credit you received. If you over-estimate your income and end up claiming less help than you are entitled to, the difference will be refunded to you when you file your income taxes the following year.
You can browse related questions in the Marketplace Verification and Appeals section.