Key Facts on Health and Health Care by Race and Ethnicity

Demographics

As of 2017, more than four in ten (42%) nonelderly individuals living in the United States were people of color, slightly higher than the share who were people of color in 2013 (40%) (Figure 5).

Figure 5: Nonelderly Population by Race/Ethnicity, 2013 and 2017

Some areas of the country, particularly the South, were more diverse than others (Figure 6).

Figure 6: Share of Nonelderly Population that is a Person of Color by State, 2017

Between 2013 and 2017, the share of the nonelderly population who are people of color increased in all states, except for DC (Figure 7). The largest percentage point increases in the share of the nonelderly population who are people of color occurred in: Nevada (3.8 percentage points), Massachusetts (3.7 percentage points), North Dakota (3.5 percentage points), Connecticut (3.4 percentage points), and Rhode Island (3.0 percentage points).

Figure 7: Percentage Point Change in Share of Nonelderly Population that is a Person of Color by State from 2013 to 2017

People of color generally were younger compared to Whites (Figure 8). During both 2013 and 2017, the share of the population below age 35 was higher for all groups of color compared to Whites. Between 2013 and 2017, the nonelderly population became older, with the share below age 35 decreasing across all racial and ethnic groups, except Whites.

Figure 8: Percent of Nonelderly Population Who is Below Age 35 by Race/Ethnicity, 2013 and 2017

People of color included higher shares of noncitizens relative to Whites, with the highest rates among Hispanics (21%) and Asians (29%) (Figure 9). Between 2013 and 2017, the share who are noncitizens decreased from 24% to 21% among Hispanics, while it increased slightly among Asians, from 28% to 29%. There was also a small increase in the share of Blacks who are noncitizens from 2013 to 2017.

Figure 9: Percent of Nonelderly Population Who is a Noncitizen by Race/Ethnicity, 2013 and 2017

Across all racial and ethnic groups, most individuals lived in a family with a full-time worker (Figure 10). Reflecting an improving economy, the share of nonelderly individuals living in a family with a full-time worker increased across all racial and ethnic groups between 2013 and 2017, and disparities between groups of color and Whites narrowed. Despite these increases, Blacks and AIANs remained less likely to have a full-time worker in the family compared to Whites as of 2017.

Figure 10: Percent of the Nonelderly Population with a Full-Time Worker in the Family by Race/Ethnicity, 2013 and 2017

Although the majority of individuals lived in a family with a full-time worker across racial and ethnic groups, groups of color were more likely to have family income below poverty compared to Whites (Figure 11). Between 2013 and 2017, the share of individuals with family income below poverty decreased for all groups except NHOPIs. Larger decreases for groups of color compared to Whites helped to narrow income disparity, but, as of 2017, all groups of color remained more likely to be poor than Whites.

Figure 11: Percent of Nonelderly Population with Income Below Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 2013 and 2017

Introduction Coverage, Access to, and Use of Care