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Understanding the Intersection of Medicaid and Work: What Does the Data Say?

Appendix Table 1: Family and Own Work Status of Non-Dual, Non-SSI, Nonelderly Adult Medicaid Enrollees, 2017
Total # Non-SSI, Non-Dual, Nonelderly Adult Medicaid Enrollees Family Work Status Own Work Status
No Worker in Family Full-Time Worker in Family Part-Time Worker in Family Not Working Working Full-Time Working Part-Time
US TOTAL 23,490,000 19% 66% 14% 37% 44% 19%
Alabama  237,000 24% 67% 10% 46% 40% 14%
Alaska  59,000 21% 62% 17% 40% 40% 21%
Arizona  610,000 14% 70% 16% 34% 46% 20%
Arkansas 196,000 25% 63% 12% 46% 39% 16%
California 4,623,000 14% 72% 14% 36% 45% 19%
Colorado 378,000 22% 68% NA 35% 46% 19%
Connecticut 370,000 16% 68% NA 33% 48% 19%
Delaware 75,000 24% 61% 16% 44% 38% 18%
District of Columbia 75,000 27% 56% 17% 38% 41% 21%
Florida 1,015,000 27% 65% 8% 44% 45% 11%
Georgia 403,000 25% 65% NA 42% 46% 13%
Hawaii 77,000 23% 63% 14% 50% 33% 16%
Idaho 73,000 26% 65% 9% 43% 45% 13%
Illinois 814,000 17% 69% 14% 32% 49% 19%
Indiana 523,000 15% 71% 14% 28% 51% 21%
Iowa 213,000 NA 69% 18% 22% 55% 23%
Kansas 88,000 NA 58% NA 37% 40% NA
Kentucky 421,000 24% 60% 16% 35% 47% 18%
Louisiana 378,000 27% 52% 21% 44% 33% 24%
Maine 92,000 20% 54% 26% 32% 38% 30%
Maryland 405,000 14% 78% NA 30% 59% 11%
Massachusetts 790,000 20% 64% 15% 33% 44% 23%
Michigan 922,000 19% 66% 15% 35% 43% 23%
Minnesota 525,000 13% 62% 25% 22% 46% 33%
Mississippi 168,000 29% 58% 13% 45% 38% 17%
Missouri 264,000 25% 56% 19% 42% 39% 19%
Montana 86,000 15% 67% 18% 27% 49% 24%
Nebraska 50,000 NA 67% 20% 31% 42% 27%
Nevada 179,000 26% 61% 13% 41% 44% 16%
New Hampshire 52,000 25% 56% NA 35% 35% 30%
New Jersey 616,000 17% 66% 17% 41% 39% 19%
New Mexico 285,000 17% 68% 15% 35% 49% 16%
New York 2,218,000 19% 67% 14% 39% 44% 17%
North Carolina 469,000 30% 54% 17% 47% 35% 18%
North Dakota 27,000 25% 60% NA 44% 37% 20%
Ohio 951,000 22% 60% 18% 37% 40% 23%
Oklahoma 165,000 16% 69% NA 34% 49% 17%
Oregon 406,000 13% 76% 11% 29% 56% 15%
Pennsylvania 977,000 25% 59% 16% 40% 40% 20%
Rhode Island 69,000 26% 64% NA 41% 39% 21%
South Carolina 299,000 22% 66% 12% 39% 47% 15%
South Dakota 27,000 25% 54% 21% 49% 30% NA
Tennessee 391,000 23% 63% 14% 41% 43% 16%
Texas 783,000 25% 65% 10% 50% 38% 12%
Utah 52,000 NA 67% 22% 30% 42% 27%
Vermont 47,000 21% 64% 14% 35% 48% 18%
Virginia 233,000 17% 69% NA 31% 50% 19%
Washington 744,000 23% 66% 11% 37% 45% 18%
West Virginia 194,000 33% 53% 14% 52% 30% 17%
Wisconsin 359,000 15% 65% 21% 26% 47% 27%
Wyoming 19,000 24% 61% 15% 39% 44% 17%
NOTES: NA= estimate does not meet minimum standard for statistical reliability. Full-Time is based on total number of hours worked per week (at least 35 hours). Full-time workers may be simultaneously working more than one-job. Note that total number of non-elderly, non-SSI adults from survey data may be lower than state administrative data.
SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of March 2018 Current Population Survey.
Appendix Table 2: Reason for Not Working Among Non-Dual, Non-SSI, Nonelderly Adult Medicaid Enrollees, 2017
  Working Ill or Disabled Caretaking Attending School Other Reason
US TOTAL 63% 11% 12% 7% 7%
Alabama 54% 15% 14% NA 9%
Alaska 60% NA 12% 10% 13%
Arizona 66% 8% 16% 4% 6%
Arkansas 54% 18% 14% NA 9%
California 64% 8% 14% 8% 6%
Colorado 65% NA 13% NA NA
Connecticut 67% 11% 12% 6% NA
Delaware 56% 18% NA 9% 10%
District of Columbia 62% 14% 8% NA 12%
Florida 56% 11% 10% 15% 8%
Georgia 58% 16% 10% NA NA
Hawaii 50% 10% 20% NA NA
Idaho 57% NA 11% NA NA
Illinois 68% 9% 12% NA 8%
Indiana 72% 16% NA NA NA
Iowa 78% NA NA NA NA
Kansas 63% NA NA NA NA
Kentucky 65% NA 13% NA NA
Louisiana 56% 18% 14% 4% 7%
Maine 68% NA 11% NA NA
Maryland 70% NA 11% NA 9%
Massachusetts 67% 10% 6% 12% 4%
Michigan 65% 11% 13% 5% 7%
Minnesota 78% 9% NA NA 8%
Mississippi 55% 20% 11% NA 8%
Missouri 58% 23% 8% 6% NA
Montana 73% 8% 10% NA NA
Nebraska 69% NA 8% NA NA
Nevada 59% 11% 17% NA NA
New Hampshire 65% 15% NA NA NA
New Jersey 59% 12% 9% 9% 10%
New Mexico 65% 7% 13% 8% 6%
New York 61% 8% 14% 9% 9%
North Carolina 53% 13% 14% 12% 8%
North Dakota 56% NA 18% NA NA
Ohio 63% 14% 12% 4% 8%
Oklahoma 66% NA 15% NA NA
Oregon 71% NA 14% NA NA
Pennsylvania 60% 16% 10% 7% 8%
Rhode Island 59% 18% 12% NA NA
South Carolina 61% 17% 11% NA NA
South Dakota 51% NA 23% NA NA
Tennessee 59% 16% 7% 9% NA
Texas 50% 15% 18% 11% 6%
Utah 70% NA NA NA NA
Vermont 65% 9% 13% NA NA
Virginia 69% 15% NA NA NA
Washington 63% 12% 9% 6% 10%
West Virginia 48% 19% 16% 9% 9%
Wisconsin 74% 10% 9% NA NA
Wyoming 61% NA 23% NA NA
NOTES: NA= estimate does not meet minimum standard for statistical reliability. Other reason includes retired, could not find work, and other reasons.
SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of March 2018 Current Population Survey.
Appendix Table 3: Characteristics of Working Non-Dual, Non-SSI, Nonelderly Adult Medicaid Enrollees, 2017
  Firm Size (# Employees) Industry
<50 50–99 100+ Agriculture/
Services
Education/
Health
Professional/
Public Admin
Manufacturing Top Industry
US TOTAL 41% 7% 52% 47% 20% 19% 14% Restaurants/Food Service
Alabama 35% NA 61% 43% 19% 18% NA Restaurants/Food Service
Alaska 58% NA 39% 49% 21% 16% 13% Construction
Arizona 42% 11% 47% 50% 21% 20% 9% Construction
Arkansas 33% NA 60% 46% 19% 10% 25% Restaurants/Food Service
California 46% 8% 46% 48% 17% 21% 14% Restaurants/Food Service
Colorado 44% NA 50% 43% 19% 23% NA NA
Connecticut 37% NA 57% 41% 24% 19% 16% Restaurants/Food Service
Delaware 35% NA 58% 48% 20% NA NA NA
District of Columbia 33% 7% 60% 48% 17% 26% 8% Restaurants/Food Service
Florida 41% 7% 52% 50% 18% 21% 11% Restaurants/Food Service
Georgia 45% NA 45% 51% NA 18% 17% NA
Hawaii 53% NA 42% 62% 17% 16% NA NA
Idaho 55% NA 35% 49% NA NA 25% Construction
Illinois 40% 8% 52% 43% 16% 20% 22% Restaurants/Food Service
Indiana 38% NA 56% 45% 21% 14% 20% Restaurants/Food Service
Iowa 39% NA 54% 39% 28% 20% NA NA
Kansas NA NA 71% 41% NA NA NA NA
Kentucky 40% 9% 51% 56% 18% 15% NA Restaurants/Food Service
Louisiana 42% NA 53% 50% 25% 17% 9% Restaurants/Food Service
Maine 56% NA 38% 59% NA NA NA NA
Maryland 39% NA 54% 45% 15% 33% NA Restaurants/Food Service
Massachusetts 37% 9% 53% 40% 24% 21% 15% Restaurants/Food Service
Michigan 28% 10% 62% 47% 21% 13% 19% Restaurants/Food Service
Minnesota 39% 7% 54% 48% 25% 12% NA Restaurants/Food Service
Mississippi 38% NA 59% 56% 26% NA NA Restaurants/Food Service
Missouri 36% NA 60% 42% 21% NA 21% NA
Montana 50% 6% 43% 53% 15% 20% 12% Restaurants/Food Service
Nebraska 50% NA 44% 49% NA 29% NA NA
Nevada 34% NA 62% 50% NA 31% NA NA
New Hampshire 32% NA 62% 44% 26% NA NA NA
New Jersey 41% NA 49% 43% 25% 21% 11% Restaurants/Food Service
New Mexico 51% 6% 43% 51% 25% 13% 11% Construction
New York 38% 8% 53% 46% 23% 17% 14% Restaurants/Food Service
North Carolina 38% NA 58% 51% 17% 12% 19% Restaurants/Food Service
North Dakota 35% NA 56% 51% 26% NA NA NA
Ohio 35% 6% 59% 46% 20% 20% 14% Restaurants/Food Service
Oklahoma 44% NA 46% 48% 17% NA 25% NA
Oregon 49% NA 45% 51% 17% 20% 11% Restaurants/Food Service
Pennsylvania 45% 7% 48% 41% 28% 18% 14% Restaurants/Food Service
Rhode Island 34% NA 58% 39% 23% NA 19% NA
South Carolina 38% NA 61% 43% 20% 26% 12% NA
South Dakota 54% NA NA 70% NA NA NA Restaurants/Food Service
Tennessee 40% NA 52% 46% 22% 23% NA NA
Texas 39% NA 52% 41% 19% 21% 20% Construction
Utah 38% NA 53% 50% NA 23% NA NA
Vermont 45% NA 48% 53% 27% NA NA NA
Virginia 26% NA 69% 52% NA 23% NA NA
Washington 44% NA 53% 56% 17% 18% 9% Restaurants/Food Service
West Virginia 35% 8% 58% 49% 27% 13% 11% Restaurants/Food Service
Wisconsin 42% NA 50% 33% 24% 19% 24% NA
Wyoming 45% 17% 38% 41% 21% NA NA NA
NOTES: Totals may not sum to 100% due to rounding. NA= estimate does not meet minimum standard for statistical reliability. Agriculture/Services includes agriculture, construction, leisure and hospitality services, wholesale and retail trade. Education/Health includes education and health services. Professional/Public Administration includes finance, professional and business services, information, and public administration. Manufacturing includes mining, manufacturing, and transportation and utilities.
SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of March 2018 Current Population Survey.
Appendix Table 4a: Share Working Among Non-Dual, Non-SSI, Nonelderly Adult Medicaid Enrollees  by Sociodemographic Characteristics, 2017
Share Working Within
Each Age Group
Share Working Within Each Sex Share Working Within
Each Race/Ethnicity Group
Age 19–25 Age 26–45 Age 46+ Women Men White,
Non-Hispanic
Black,
Non-Hispanic
Hispanic Other
Non-Hispanic
US TOTAL 61% 68% 57% 58% 69% 63% 59% 64% 62%
Alabama 63% 54% 48% 47% 65% 47% 54% 82% 76%
Alaska 65% 66% 43% 57% 64% 63% NA 45% 62%
Arizona 65% 73% 54% 59% 75% 63% 59% 69% NA
Arkansas 67% 57% 41% 50% 62% 48% 58% 77% 60%
California 61% 66% 61% 56% 73% 66% 59% 64% 62%
Colorado 68% 78% 46% 60% 70% 62% 57% 70% 82%
Connecticut 51% 68% 73% 60% 76% 73% 77% 61% NA
Delaware 60% 67% 42% 54% 58% 43% 63% 65% 73%
District of Columbia 65% 64% 55% 62% 62% 78% 57% 71% 90%
Florida 35% 70% 57% 57% 55% 44% 62% 61% 80%
Georgia 52% 66% 46% 53% 66% 65% 48% 77% NA
Hawaii 61% 41% 52% 51% 48% 54% NA 51% 48%
Idaho 66% 65% 43% 49% 66% 59% NA 50% 61%
Illinois 72% 71% 61% 58% 78% 72% 54% 68% 73%
Indiana 75% 76% 63% 68% 77% 75% 54% 76% 79%
Iowa 72% 81% 77% 78% 76% 78% NA 77% NA
Kansas 81% 65% 32% 66% 58% 60% 76% 87% NA
Kentucky 66% 70% 57% 58% 73% 63% 64% 89% NA
Louisiana 61% 62% 42% 54% 61% 55% 57% 51% 70%
Maine 83% 64% 65% 61% 77% 65% NA NA 88%
Maryland 58% 74% 71% 62% 79% 72% 68% 75% 57%
Massachusetts 48% 74% 70% 68% 67% 66% 73% 68% 62%
Michigan 77% 68% 49% 57% 74% 71% 61% 51% 47%
Minnesota 91% 82% 65% 77% 80% 79% 91% 79% 65%
Mississippi 59% 56% 52% 52% 61% 57% 54% NA NA
Missouri 47% 66% 53% 60% 56% 58% 60% NA NA
Montana 84% 80% 53% 68% 78% 72% NA 80% 77%
Nebraska 76% 65% 65% 60% 81% 72% 72% 76% NA
Nevada 57% 64% 52% 48% 70% 61% NA 61% NA
New Hampshire 78% 70% 40% 62% 68% 62% NA 87% 66%
New Jersey 50% 70% 48% 55% 63% 58% 50% 64% 63%
New Mexico 63% 68% 62% 60% 71% 66% NA 67% 56%
New York 53% 66% 58% 52% 70% 59% 56% 66% 63%
North Carolina 58% 51% 47% 51% 56% 52% 50% 56% 64%
North Dakota 70% 47% 62% 52% 63% 62% 63% 72% NA
Ohio 72% 67% 51% 64% 63% 64% 56% 76% 81%
Oklahoma 59% 72% 54% 61% 75% 70% NA 72% 58%
Oregon 73% 69% 75% 62% 82% 70% NA 81% 65%
Pennsylvania 64% 65% 50% 58% 62% 58% 60% 64% 65%
Rhode Island 86% 68% 36% 60% 58% 60% 55% 59% 80%
South Carolina 57% 68% 50% 54% 71% 57% 65% 86% 72%
South Dakota NA 58% 54% 44% 70% 60% NA 53% 35%
Tennessee 58% 67% 43% 64% 51% 54% 63% 78% 82%
Texas 40% 56% 48% 46% 57% 51% 51% 49% NA
Utah 87% 60% 74% 77% 60% 67% NA 71% NA
Vermont 74% 72% 50% 60% 73% 66% 73% NA 73%
Virginia 82% 71% 58% 63% 80% 76% 63% 64% 64%
Washington 66% 70% 49% 58% 68% 60% 71% 69% 62%
West Virginia 40% 53% 45% 43% 54% 47% 61% NA NA
Wisconsin 60% 86% 63% 75% 72% 76% 79% 61% 60%
Wyoming 64% 53% 81% 53% 71% 59% NA 69% 59%
NOTES: NA= estimate does not meet minimum standard for statistical reliability.
SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of March 2018 Current Population Survey.
Appendix Table 4b: Share Working Among Non-Dual, Non-SSI, Nonelderly Adult Medicaid Enrollees by Sociodemographic Characteristics, 2017
Share Working Within Each Education Level Share Working Within Each Health Status Group
< High School High School Grad Some College BA or Higher Fair/Poor Good Excellent/
Very Good
US TOTAL 54% 62% 64% 72% 39% 64% 69%
Alabama NA 52% 64% 60% NA 48% 63%
Alaska 42% 62% 68% 60% 54% 51% 67%
Arizona 57% 67% 76% 69% 38% 73% 69%
Arkansas 44% 53% 60% 63% 23% 64% 69%
California 60% 61% 65% 71% 41% 66% 68%
Colorado 57% 53% 68% 77% NA 58% 75%
Connecticut 57% 65% 68% 75% 41% 72% 71%
Delaware 38% 50% 71% 82% NA 57% 62%
District of Columbia 46% 60% 63% 79% 45% 51% 75%
Florida 43% 58% 52% 72% 21% 62% 61%
Georgia NA 55% 62% 75% NA 53% 72%
Hawaii 48% 47% 50% 56% 39% 39% 62%
Idaho 54% 64% 40% 80% NA 60% 67%
Illinois 54% 69% 67% 74% NA 77% 70%
Indiana 51% 75% 73% 86% 42% 67% 88%
Iowa 68% 77% 82% 77% NA 70% 86%
Kansas 59% 62% 76% NA NA 52% 72%
Kentucky 58% 59% 63% 97% 42% 72% 76%
Louisiana 43% 57% 58% 78% 33% 63% 64%
Maine NA 67% 66% 78% 47% 58% 84%
Maryland 81% 77% 58% 79% 70% 60% 76%
Massachusetts 61% 72% 62% 68% 51% 76% 68%
Michigan 54% 66% 67% 67% 43% 74% 69%
Minnesota 67% 75% 81% 88% NA 78% 89%
Mississippi 37% 53% 60% 77% 48% 62% 53%
Missouri NA 57% 58% 81% 29% 69% 73%
Montana NA 67% 74% 89% 39% 62% 80%
Nebraska 57% 78% 66% 83% 71% 69% 68%
Nevada 42% 57% 59% 88% NA 62% 68%
New Hampshire NA 63% 81% NA 51% 84% 60%
New Jersey NA 62% 57% 67% 42% 55% 66%
New Mexico 58% 66% 64% 74% 57% 73% 63%
New York 52% 62% 61% 64% 50% 58% 66%
North Carolina 34% 61% 54% 60% NA 52% 60%
North Dakota 44% 56% 63% 58% 41% 48% 66%
Ohio 44% 61% 70% 70% 43% 63% 72%
Oklahoma 60% 66% 67% 77% 56% 64% 71%
Oregon 76% 66% 68% 81% 46% 67% 83%
Pennsylvania 49% 57% 57% 82% 35% 65% 68%
Rhode Island 44% 56% 62% 84% NA 57% 73%
South Carolina 40% 61% 69% 68% NA 61% 67%
South Dakota NA 45% 58% 56% 39% 35% 62%
Tennessee 53% 56% 58% 74% NA 71% 72%
Texas 47% 48% 47% 70% 31% 63% 50%
Utah NA NA 82% 94% NA NA 89%
Vermont NA 62% 65% 81% 48% 56% 75%
Virginia 63% 65% 66% NA NA 76% 81%
Washington 58% 63% 69% 53% 29% 51% 76%
West Virginia NA 44% 53% 73% 35% 35% 63%
Wisconsin 56% 74% 85% 72% 58% 70% 83%
Wyoming NA 55% 70% NA NA 72% 58%
NOTES: NA= estimate does not meet minimum standard for statistical reliability.
SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of March 2018 Current Population Survey.
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