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Key Facts on Health and Health Care by Race and Ethnicity

Section 2: Health Access and Utilization

People of color face increased barriers to accessing care and report lower utilization of care. Among the nonelderly population, Asians, Hispanics, Blacks, and American Indians and Alaska Natives generally fare worse than Whites across measures of access to and utilization of care (Exhibit 2.1 and Appendix Table 1). There remain large data gaps for understanding access to and utilization of care for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders.

Exhibit 2.1: Number of Access and Utilization Measures for which Groups fared Better, the Same, or Worse Compared to Whites

Exhibit 2.1: Number of Access and Utilization Measures for which Groups fared Better, the Same, or Worse Compared to Whites

Delaying or forgoing needed care. Among nonelderly adults, Hispanics, Blacks, and American Indians and Alaska Natives are more likely than Whites to delay or forgo needed care due to costs and for other reasons (Exhibit 2.2).

Exhibit 2.2: Percent of Nonelderly Adults who did not Receive or Delayed Care in the Past 12 Months by Race/Ethnicity, 2014

Exhibit 2.2: Percent of Nonelderly Adults who did not Receive or Delayed Care in the Past 12 Months by Race/Ethnicity, 2014

Usual source of care. Asian, Hispanic, and Black adults and children are less likely than their White counterparts to report having a usual source of care (Exhibit 2.3).

Exhibit 2.3 - Percent of Nonelderly Adults and Children with a Usual Source of Care Other than the Emergency Room by Race/Ethnicity, 2014

Exhibit 2.3 – Percent of Nonelderly Adults and Children with a Usual Source of Care Other than the Emergency Room by Race/Ethnicity, 2014

Types of usual source of care. Types of usual source of care also vary by race and ethnicity. Hispanics, Blacks, and American Indians and Alaska Natives are more likely than Whites to rely on a clinic or other provider rather than a doctor’s office as their source of care (Exhibit 2.4).

Exhibit 2.4: Type of Regular Source of Care for Nonelderly Adults and Children by Race/Ethnicity, 2014

Exhibit 2.4: Type of Regular Source of Care for Nonelderly Adults and Children by Race/Ethnicity, 2014

Utilization of care among adults. Among nonelderly adults, Hispanics and Blacks are less likely to have utilized health or dental care in the past year compared to Whites. In addition, the percent of Asians reporting a health care visit and the percent of American Indians and Alaska Natives reporting a dental visit are lower than Whites (Exhibit 2.5).

Exhibit 2.5: Percent of Nonelderly Adults With a Health Care or Dental Visit in the Last 12 Months by Race/Ethnicity, 2014

Exhibit 2.5: Percent of Nonelderly Adults With a Health Care or Dental Visit in the Last 12 Months by Race/Ethnicity, 2014

Utilization of care among children. Across groups, a higher percentage of children utilized health and dental care than adults. However, there still are disparities in utilization by race and ethnicity among children (Exhibit 2.6). There are fewer disparities in immunization rates of young children, although Black children are less likely than White children to be immunized.

Exhibit 2.6: Percent of Children Receiving Selected Health Care Services by Race/Ethnicity, 2014

Exhibit 2.6: Percent of Children Receiving Selected Health Care Services by Race/Ethnicity, 2014

Women’s preventive services. Findings are mixed regarding differences by race and ethnicity in women’s receipt of preventive screening services (Exhibit 2.7). Black women fare better than White women with regard to receiving a mammogram and a Pap smear. However, American Indian and Alaska Native women are less likely than White women to have received a mammogram, and lower shares of Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander women report receiving a Pap smear compared to White women.

Exhibit 2.7: Percent of Women Receiving Selected Health Screenings by Race/Ethnicity, 2014

Exhibit 2.7: Percent of Women Receiving Selected Health Screenings by Race/Ethnicity, 2014

Section 1: Demographics Section 3: Health Status and Outcomes

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