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ACA Coverage Expansions and Low-Income Workers

Appendix Table 1: Characteristics of Adult Workers (Ages 19-64) by Income Level, 2014
All Workers Workers Above and Below 250% FPL Workers by Income Level
Low-Income Workers
<250% FPL
Higher Income Workers
≥250 % FPL
Very Low Income Workers
<100% FPL
Low Income Workers
100% FPL – 249% FPL
Higher Income Workers
250% FPL – 399% FPL
Highest Income Workers
≥400% FPL
Total Number of Workers
(in thousands)
145,008 43,044 101,965 9,714 33,329 32,693 69,271
Age
    19 – 34 36% 47% 31%* 53% 45%^ 37%^ 28%^
    35 – 54 46% 41% 48%* 38% 42%^ 47%^ 48%^
    55 – 64 19% 12% 21%* 9% 13%^ 17%^ 24%^
Gender
    Male 53% 50% 54%* 44% 52%^ 53%^ 54%^
    Female 47% 50% 46%* 56% 48%^ 47%^ 46%^
Race/Ethnicity
    White 64% 49% 70%* 44% 51%^ 62%^ 74%^
    Hispanic 17% 27% 12%* 30% 27%^ 18%^ 9%^
    Black 11% 16% 9%* 19% 15%^ 12%^ 8%^
    Other 8% 8% 8%* 7% 8% 7% 9%^
Education
    Less than high school 8% 17% 4%* 24% 15%^ 7%^ 2%^
    High school graduate 27% 36% 23%* 35% 36% 32%^ 19%^
    Some college 30% 32% 29%* 30% 33%^ 33%^ 27%^
    Bachelor’s or higher 35% 15% 44%* 12% 16%^ 28%^ 51%^
Citizenship Status
    Native born 83% 76% 86%* 73% 76%^ 83%^ 87%^
    Naturalized 8% 8% 8% 7% 8%^ 8%^ 8%^
    Non-citizen 9% 16% 6%* 20% 15%^ 8%^ 5%^
Health Status
    Excellent/very good 69% 62% 72%* 59% 63%^ 68%^ 74%^
    Good 25% 29% 23%* 30% 29% 26%^ 21%^
    Fair/poor 6% 9% 5%* 10% 8%^ 6%^ 4%^
Average Household Size           3.1               3.4  3.0*            3.5 3.4^ 3.2^ 2.9^
Family Composition
    Single adult 22% 31% 18%* 34% 30%^ 23%^ 16%^
    Married adults and adults living together 40% 24% 47%* 15% 26%^ 39%^ 51%^
    Single parent with children 5% 11% 2%* 18% 9%^ 4%^ 1%^
    Two parents with children 23% 21% 24%* 18% 22%^ 24%^ 25%^
    Other families with children 9% 13% 8%* 15% 13%^ 11%^ 7%^
No. of Workers in Family
    Multiple full-time workers in family 42% 17% 53%* 6% 20%^ 41%^ 58%^
    One full-time worker in family 50% 64% 44%* 56% 66%^ 55% 40%^
    Part-time workers only in family 8% 19% 3%* 38% 13%^ 4%^ 2%^
* Indicates a statistically significant difference from low-income workers <250% FPL at p<.05 level.
^ Indicates a statistically significant difference from very low income workers <100% FPL at p<.05 level.
NOTE: Data may not sum to 100% due to rounding.
SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of the 2015 ASEC Supplement to the CPS.
Appendix Table 2: Employment Characteristics of Adult Workers (Ages 19-64) by Income Level, 2014
All Workers Workers Above and Below 250% FPL Workers by Income Level
All Low-Income Workers
<250% FPL
All Higher Income Workers
≥250 % FPL
Very Low Income Workers
<100% FPL
Low Income Workers
100% FPL – 249% FPL
Higher Income Workers
250% FPL – 399% FPL
Highest Income Workers
≥400% FPL
Avg. Annual Income of Worker $51,802 $20,593 $64,977* $10,091 $23,654^ $36,262^ $78,529^
Average Hourly Wage
(among those paid hourly)
$16.65 $12.86 $18.75* $11.57 $13.16^ $15.99^ $20.59^
Weeks Worked per Year
    Average 47.6 44.7 48.8* 38.0 46.7^ 48.3^ 49.1^
    Median 52.0 52.0 52.0 50.0 52.0^ 52.0^ 52.0^
Hours Worked per Week
    Average 39.5 37.0 40.4* 34.0 37.8^ 39.3^ 41.0^
    Median 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0
Work Status
    Full-Time, Full-Year 71% 56% 77%* 32% 64%^ 74%^ 79%^
    Full-Time, Part-Year 12% 17% 9%* 27% 14%^ 11%^ 9%^
    Part-Time, Full Year 10% 14% 8%* 19% 13%^ 9%^ 7%^
    Part-Time, Part Year 8% 12% 6%* 23% 9%^ 7%^ 5%^
Reasons for Working Part-Time
(Among Part-Time Workers)
    Job Related 36% 45% 31%* 51% 42%^ 33%^ 29%^
    Child Care/Family 20% 18% 22%* 16% 19%^ 21%^ 23%^
    School/Training 15% 15% 15% 16% 15% 15% 14%
    Health/Medical 10% 9% 10%* 7% 10%^ 11%^ 10%^
    Vacation/Pers. Day or Holiday 10% 6% 12%* 4% 7%^ 10%^ 13%^
    Other 9% 7% 10%* 7% 7% 9%^ 10%^
Employer Firm Size
    Under 10 19% 25% 17%* 30% 24%^ 18%^ 16%^
    10-49 14% 17% 13%* 17% 17% 15%^ 12%^
    50-99 7% 8% 7% 6% 8%^ 8%^ 7%
    100-999 18% 16% 19%* 14% 17%^ 19%^ 19%^
    1,000+ 41% 34% 44%* 33% 34%^ 40%^ 46%^
Industry
  Agriculture/ Service 31% 43% 26%* 50% 41%^ 32%^ 24%^
    Professional/ Public Admin 25% 17% 28%* 16% 18%^ 22%^ 31%^
   Education/Health 23% 19% 24%* 17% 19%^ 23%^ 25%^
    Manufacturing/ Infrastructure 16% 14% 17%* 10% 15%^ 17%^ 17%^
    Other 5% 7% 5%* 7% 7% 6%^ 4%^
* Indicates a statistically significant difference from low-income workers <250% FPL at p<.05 level.
^ Indicates a statistically significant difference from very low income workers <100% FPL at p<.05 level.
NOTE: Industry classifications: Agriculture/Service includes agriculture, construction, leisure and hospitality services, wholesale and retail trade. Education/Health includes education and health services. Professional/Public Admin includes finance, professional and business services, information and public administration. Manufacturing/Infrastructure includes mining, manufacturing, utilities, and transportation. Data may not sum to 100% due to rounding.
SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of the 2015 ASEC Supplement to the CPS.
Appendix Table 3: Health Coverage of Adult Workers (Ages 19-64) by Income Level, 2013-2014
2013 2014
All Workers Low-Income Workers
<250% FPL
Higher Income Workers
≥250% FPL
All Workers Low-Income Workers
<250% FPL
Higher Income Workers
≥250% FPL
Health Coverage
Employer-Sponsored Insurance 68% 41% 80%* 68% 42% 79%*~
       Own ESI 50% 30% 58%* 50% 31% 58%*~
       Dependent ESI 18% 11% 22%* 18% 11% 21%*
Non-Group 5% 6% 5%* 7%~ 10%~ 7%*~
Medicaid/Other Public 9% 18% 5%* 11%~ 23%~ 7%*~
Uninsured 17% 35% 10%* 13%~ 26%~ 8%*~
Expansion States
Employer-Sponsored Insurance 69% 40% 81%* 68%~ 39% 79%*~
       Own ESI 50% 29% 58%* 49%~ 28%~ 57%*~
       Dependent ESI 19% 11% 23%* 19% 11% 22%*
Non-Group 5% 6% 5%* 7%~ 9%~ 6%*~
Medicaid/Other Public 10% 22% 6%* 14%~ 30%~ 7%*~
Uninsured 15% 31% 9%* 11%~ 22%~ 7%*~
Non-Expansion States
Employer-Sponsored Insurance 67%# 41% 79%*# 68% 45%~# 78%*#
       Own ESI 50% 31%# 59%* 50% 34%~# 58%*#
       Dependent ESI 17%# 10% 20%*# 17% 11% 20%*#
Non-Group 5% 6% 5%* 8%~# 10%~ 7%*~
Medicaid/Other Public 8%# 14%# 5%* 8%# 15%# 6%*
Uninsured 19%# 39%# 11%*# 16%~# 30%~# 9%*~#
* Indicates a statistically significant difference from low-income workers <250% FPL within the same year at p<.05 level.
~ Indicates a statistically significant difference from 2013 health insurance coverage at p<.05 level.
# Indicates a statistically significant difference from coverage in Medicaid expansion states within the same year at p<.05 level.
NOTE: In this table, Medicaid expansion states include the 27 states (including DC) that adopted the Medicaid expansion in 2014. Five additional states have adopted the Medicaid expansion since 2014, including Pennsylvania, Indiana, Alaska, Montana, and Louisiana. Wisconsin covers adults up to 100% FPL in Medicaid but did not adopt the Medicaid Expansion. Data may not sum to 100% due to rounding.
SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of the 2014 and 2015 ASEC Supplements to the CPS.
Appendix Table 4: Eligibility for ACA Health Coverage Among Uninsured Adult Workers (Ages 19-64), 2015
Total Uninsured Workers Uninsured
Low-Income Workers
<250% FPL
Uninsured
Higher Income Workers
≥250 % FPL
Uninsured Workers
    Medicaid Eligible 16% 23% 5%*
    Tax Credit Eligible 27% 31% 22%*
    In the Coverage Gap 7% 12% 2%*
    Ineligible for Coverage due to Immigration Status 17% 22% 10%*
    Ineligible for Financial Assistance due to ESI Offer 19% 11% 30%*
    Ineligible for Financial Assistance due to Income 14% 2% 31%*
Uninsured Workers in Medicaid Expansion States
    Medicaid Eligible 27% 41% 9%*
    Tax Credit Eligible 23% 25% 21%*
    In the Coverage Gap N/A N/A N/A
    Ineligible for Coverage due to Immigration Status 18% 23% 11%*
    Ineligible for Financial Assistance due to ESI Offer 18% 9% 29%*
    Ineligible for Financial Assistance due to Income 14% 2% 31%*
Uninsured Workers in Non-Expansion States
    Medicaid Eligible 2%~ 3%~ 0%*~
    Tax Credit Eligible 32%~ 37%~ 25%*~
    In the Coverage Gap 16%~ 24%~ 4%*~
    Ineligible for Coverage due to Immigration Status 16% 21% 10%*
    Ineligible for Financial Assistance due to ESI Offer 20%~ 13%~ 31%*
    Ineligible for Financial Assistance due to Income 13% 2% 30%*
* Indicates a statistically significant difference from uninsured low-income workers <250% FPL at p<.05 level.
~ Indicates a statistically significant difference from eligibility for coverage in Medicaid expansion states at p<.05 level.
NOTES: In this table, Medicaid expansion states include the 32 states (including DC) that have adopted the Medicaid expansion as of April 2016. Wisconsin covers adults up to 100% FPL in Medicaid but did not adopt the Medicaid Expansion. Tax credit eligible includes individuals eligible for the Basic Health Plan. Income eligibility for both Medicaid and Marketplace subsidies is assessed by grouping people into “health insurance units” (HIUs) and calculating HIU income according to Medicaid and Marketplace program rules. HIUs differ from Census families, which are used to determine household income. This distinction results in a small number of workers that reside in higher income households falling into the coverage gap. Data may not sum to 100% due to rounding.
SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis based on 2015 Medicaid eligibility levels updated to reflect state Medicaid expansion decisions as of April 2016 and 2015 ASEC Supplement to the CPS.
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