Summary
  1. Data and research often assume cisgender identities and may not systematically account for people who are transgender and non-binary. The language used in this brief attempts to be as inclusive as possible while acknowledging that the data we are citing uses gender labels that we cannot change without misrepresenting the data.

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Issue Brief
  1. Gopal K. Singh. Maternal Mortality in the United States, 1935-2007: Substantial Racial/Ethnic, Socioeconomic, and Geographic Disparities Persist. A 75th Anniversary Publication. Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau (2010), https://www.hrsa.gov/sites/default/files/ourstories/mchb75th/mchb75maternalmortality.pdf and Gopal K. Singh and Stella M. Yu, “Infant Mortality in the United States, 1915-1917: Large Social Inequalities have Persisted for Over a Century,” International Journal of Maternal and Child Health and AIDS, 8, no. 1 (2019), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6487507/

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  2. Emily E. Petersen et al., “Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Pregnancy-Related Deaths — United States, 2007–2016,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 68, no. 35 (September 2019): 762–765, https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6835a3.htm

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  3. Andreea A. Creanga et al., “Pregnancy-Related Mortality in the United States, 2011-2013,” Obstetrics & Gynecology 130, no. 2 (August 2017): 366-373, https://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Fulltext/2017/08000/Pregnancy_Related_Mortality_in_the_United_
    States,.15.aspx

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  4. Jacklynn Blanchard, Out of Sight, Out of Mind? What Is the True US Maternal Mortality Rate? No One Knows, (Albany, NY: Rockefeller Institute of Government, August 2019), https://rockinst.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/8-1-19-Maternity-Mortality-Brief.pdf

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  5. Subsequent CDC analysis found that the maternal mortality rate for 2018 was 17.4 deaths per 100,000 live births. This analysis uses different definitions and limitations for identifying deaths as pregnancy related that also likely underestimates the number of deaths attributable to pregnancy or pregnancy-related complications.

    Donna L. Hoyert and Arialdi M. Miniño, “Maternal Mortality in the United States: Changes in Coding, Publication, and Data Release, 2018,” National Vital Statistics Reports 69, no. 2 (January 2020): 1-18, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32510319/

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  6. Jen Joynt, Maternity Care in California: A Bundle of Data, (California Health Care Foundation, November 2019), https://www.chcf.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/MaternityCareCAAlmanac2019.pdf

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  7. Tetine Sentell et al., “Maternal quality and safety outcomes for Asians and Pacific Islanders in Hawai‘i: an observational study from five years of statewide data,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 14, no. 298 (August 2014), https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2393-14-298

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  8. Kylea L. Liese et al., “Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Severe Maternal Morbidity in the United States,” Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities 6, (March 2019): 790-798, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-019-00577-w,

    Elizabeth A. Howell et al., “Race and Ethnicity, Medical Insurance, and Within-Hospital Severe Maternal Morbidity Disparities,” Obstetrics & Gynecology 135, no. 2 (February 2020): 285-293, https://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Abstract/2020/02000/Race_and_Ethnicity,_Medical_Insurance,_
    and.7.aspx

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  9. Elizabeth A. Howell et al., “Severe Maternal Morbidity Among Hispanic Women in New York City: Investigation of Health Disparities”, Obstetrics & Gynecology 129, no. 2 (February 2017): 285-294, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5380443/

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  10. Emily E. Petersen et al., “Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Pregnancy-Related Deaths — United States, 2007–2016,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 68, no. 35 (September 2019): 762–765, https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6835a3.htm

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  11. Ibid.

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  12. Emily E. Petersen et al., “Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Pregnancy-Related Deaths — United States, 2007–2016,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 68, no. 35 (September 2019): 762–765, https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6835a3.htm

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  13. “About Teen Pregnancy,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, March 2019, https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/about/index.htm

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  14. Ibid.

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  15. Rabah Kamal, Julie Hudman, and Daniel McDermott, What do we know about infant mortality in the U.S. and comparable countries?, (New York City, NY and Washington, DC: Peterson Center on Healthcare and KFF, October 2019), https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/chart-collection/infant-mortality-u-s-compare-countries/#item-the-u-s-infant-mortality-rate-has-improved-over-time

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  16. “Infant Mortality”, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, September 2020, https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/infantmortality.htm

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  17. Shannon M. Pruitt et al., “Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Fetal Deaths – United States, 2015-2017,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 69, no. 37 (September 2020): 1277-1282, https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/pdfs/mm6937a1-H.pdf

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  18. Miguel Ceballos and Alberto Palloni, “Maternal and infant health of Mexican immigrants in the United States: the effects of acculturation, duration, and selective return migration,” Ethnicity & Health 15, no. 4 (August 2010): 377-396, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2951882/,

    Osea Guintella, “The Hispanic health paradox: New evidence from longitudinal data on second and third-generation birth outcomes,” SSM – Population Health 2, (December 2016): 84-89, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352827316000203#bib6,

    Kenneth Dominguez et al., “Vital Signs: Leading Causes of Death, Prevalence of Diseases and Risk Factors, and Use of Health Services Among Hispanics in the United States — 2009–2013,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 64, no. 17 (May 2015): 469-478, https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6417a5.htm?s_cid=mm6417a5_w,

    Whitney S. Rice et al., “Disparities in Infant Mortality by Race among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Infants,” Maternal and Child Health Journal 21, no. 7 (July 2017): 1581-1588, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5498242/

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  19. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2018 National Healthcare quality and Disparities Report, (Washington, DC: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, September 2019), https://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhqdr18/index.html

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  20. Peiyin Hung, et al., “Access To Obstetric Services In Rural Counties Still Declining, With 9 Percent Losing Services, 2004–14,” Health Affairs 36, no. 9 (September 2017), https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.2017.0338

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  21. Carmen Giurgescu et al., “Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women,” Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing 27, no.1 (January-March 2013): 81–96, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3901405/

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  22. Gwen Latendresse, “The Interaction Between Chronic Stress and Pregnancy: Preterm Birth from A Biobehavioral Perspective,” Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health 54, no. 1 (2009): 8–17, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2651684/

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  23. Maeve Wallace et al., “Separate and unequal: Structural racism and infant mortality in the US,” Health & Place, no. 45 (March 2017): 140-144, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28363132/

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  24. Saraswathi Vedam et al., “The Giving Voice to Mothers study: inequity and mistreatment during pregnancy and childbirth in the United States,” Reproductive Health 16, (June 2019), https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12978-019-0729-2

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  25. Institute of Medicine, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, (Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, March 2002), http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/Reports/2002/Unequal-Treatment-Confronting-Racial-and-Ethnic-Disparities-in-Health-Care.aspx,

    Elizabeth A. Howell et al., “Race and Ethnicity, Medical Insurance, and Within-Hospital Severe Maternal Morbidity Disparities,” Obstetrics & Gynecology 135, no. 2 (February 2020): 285-293, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31923076/

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  26. Brad N. Greenwood et al., “Physician–patient racial concordance and disparities in birthing mortality for newborns”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117, no. 35 (August 2020): 21194-21200, https://www.pnas.org/content/117/35/21194

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  27. Emily E. Petersen et al., “Vital Signs: Pregnancy-Related Deaths, United States, 2011–2015, and Strategies for Prevention, 13 States, 2013-2017”, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 68, no. 18 (May 2019): 423-429, https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6818e1.htm?s_cid=mm6818e1_w

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