How Much More Than Medicare Do Private Insurers Pay? A Review of the Literature

Issue Brief
  1. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. 2019. National Health Expenditures 2018 Highlights. Washington, D.C.: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. https://www.cms.gov/files/document/highlights.pdf

     

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  2. Tolbert, Jennifer, et. al. 2019. Key Facts about the Uninsured Population. Washington, D.C.: Kaiser Family Foundation. http://files.kff.org/attachment/Issue-Brief-Key-Facts-about-the-Uninsured-Population

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  3. Neuman, Tricia, et. al. 2019. Where Do the Democratic Candidates Stand on Health Reform? Washington, D.C.: Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/slideshow/where-do-the-democratic-candidates-stand-on-health-reform/

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  4. Kaiser Family Foundation. 2018. Medicare-for-All and Public Plan Buy-In Proposals: Overview and Key Issues. Washington, D.C.: Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/report-section/medicare-for-all-and-public-plan-buy-in-proposals-overview-and-key-issues-issue-brief/

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  5. “Medicare for All Act of 2019”. H.R. 1384, 116th Congress. 2019. https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/1384

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  6. “Medicare for All Act of 2019”. S. 1129, 116th Congress. 2019. https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/senate-bill/1129/text

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  7. Song, Zirui 2019. “The Pricing of Care Under Medicare for All: Implications and Policy Choices”. JAMA. 322(5): 395-396. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2737591

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  8. Sanders, Bernard. 2017. “An Agenda to Fight Inequality”. The Lancet. 389(10077): P1376-1377. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)30882-6/fulltext

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  9. Koller, Christopher and Khullar, Dhruv. 2019. “The Commercial Differential for Hospital Prices: Responses from States and Employers”. JAMA. Published online July 22, 2019. E1-E2. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2739290

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  10. Crowley, Ryan et. al.; Health and Public Policy Committee of the American College of Physicians. 2020. “Envisioning a Better U.S. Health Care System for All: Coverage and Cost of Care”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 172(2 Suppl.): S7-S32. https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2759529/envisioning-better-u-s-health-care-system-all-coverage-cost

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  11. “Increasing the Availability of Quality, Affordable Health Coverage in the Individual Market”. S.B. 5526, 66th Washington State Legislature, 2019. https://app.leg.wa.gov/billsummary?BillNumber=5526&Year=2019&Initiative=false

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  12. “Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act”. S. 3548, 116th Congress. 2020.  https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/senate-bill/3548/text

     

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  13. Strata Decision Technology. 2020. Hospitals Face Massive Losses on COVID-19 Cases Even With Proposed Increase in Federal Reimbursement. Chicago, IL: Strata Decision Technology. https://www.stratadecision.com/blog/report-hospitals-face-massive-losses-on-covid-19-cases-even-with-proposed-increase-in-federal-reimbursement/

     

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  14. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. 2019. National Health Expenditures 2018 Highlights. Washington, D.C.: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. https://www.cms.gov/files/document/highlights.pdf

     

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  15. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. 2019. Hospital Acute Inpatient Services Payment System. Washington, D.C.: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. http://medpac.gov/docs/default-source/payment-basics/medpac_payment_basics_19_hospital_final_v2_sec.pdf?sfvrsn=0

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  16. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Office of the Actuary. 2019. Simulations of Affordable Care Act Medicare Payment Update Provisions on Part A Provider Financial Margins. Baltimore, MD: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Office of the Actuary. https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/ReportsTrustFunds/Downloads/ACAmarginsimulations2019.pdf

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  17. Holahan, John and McMorrow, Stacey. 2019. Slow Growth in Medicare and Medicaid Spending per Enrollee Has Implications for Policy Debates. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute. https://www.urban.org/research/publication/slow-growth-medicare-and-medicaid-spending-enrollee-has-implications-policy-debates

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  18. Cubanski, Juliette et. al. 2019. The Facts on Medicare Spending and Financing. Washington, D.C.: Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/medicare/issue-brief/the-facts-on-medicare-spending-and-financing/

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  19. “Increasing the Availability of Quality, Affordable Health Coverage in the Individual Market”. S.B. 5526, 66th Washington State Legislature, 2019. https://app.leg.wa.gov/billsummary?BillNumber=5526&Year=2019&Initiative=false

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  20. Colorado Department of Regulatory Agencies Division of Insurance, Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing. 2019. Draft Report for Colorado’s State Coverage Option. Denver, Colorado: Department of Regulatory Agencies and Department of Health Care Policy and Financing. https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/dora/proposal-state-option-health-care-coverage

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  21. Crowley, Ryan et. al.; Health and Public Policy Committee of the American College of Physicians. 2020. “Envisioning a Better U.S. Health Care System for All: Coverage and Cost of Care”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 172(2 Suppl.): S7-S32. https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2759529/envisioning-better-u-s-health-care-system-all-coverage-cost

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  22. The Boards of Trustees of the Federal Hospital Insurance and Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Funds. 2011. 2011 Annual Report of the Boards of Trustees of the Federal Hospital Insurance and Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Funds. Washington, D.C.: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/ReportsTrustFunds/downloads/tr2011.pdf

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  23. Dobson, Allen, et. al. 2016. Estimating the Impact of Repealing the Affordable Care Act on Hospitals. Vienna, Virginia: Dobson DaVanzo & Associates, LLC. https://www.dobsondavanzo.com/clientuploads/Publications/Health_Care_Reform/FAH_&_AHA_
    Impact_of_Repealing_the_ACA_on_Hospitals_Report_Attachment_11_30_16.pdf

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  24. Clemens, Jeffrey and Veuger, Stan. 2015. “Repeal of the Medicare Sustainable Growth Rate: Direct and Indirect Consequences”. AMA J. Ethics. 17(11): 1053-1058. https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/repeal-medicare-sustainable-growth-rate-direct-and-indirect-consequences/2015-11

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  25. Goldsmith, Jeff et. al. 2019. “Medicare Expansion: A Preliminary Analysis of Hospital Financial Impacts”. Navigant Consulting, Inc. https://www.navigant.com/-/media/www/site/insights/healthcare/2019/medicare-expansion-analysis.pdf

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  26. Reed, Abelson. 2019. “Hospitals Stand to Lose Billions Under ‘Medicare for All’”. The New York Times. April 21, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/21/health/medicare-for-all-hospitals.html

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  27. Cooper, Zack et. al. 2018. “The Price Ain’t Right? Hospital Prices and Health Spending on the Privately Insured”. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 21815. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w21815

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  28. Kronick, Richard and Neyaz, Sarah. 2019. Private Insurance Payments to California Hospitals Average More Than Double Medicare Payments. Washington, D.C.: West Health Policy Center. https://assets-global.website-files.com/5c65bc6ef2c54007f2d69d05/5ce21ad67e30fb151b1f4caa_West%20Health%20Policy%20Center
    %20Hospital%20Pricing%20Analysis%20May%202019.pdf

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  29. Ginsburg, Paul. 2010. “Wide Variation in Hospital and Physician Payment Rates Evidence of Provider Market Power”. Center for Studying Health Systems Change, Research Brief No. 16. http://www.hschange.org/CONTENT/1162/#ib2

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  30. White et. al. 2014. “Understanding Differences Between High- and Low-Price Hospitals: Implications for Efforts to Rein in Costs”. Health Affairs. 33(2): 324-331. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.2013.0747

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  31. Ge, Bai and Anderson, Gerard. 2018. “Market Power: Price Variation Among Commercial Insurers for Hospital Services”. Health Affairs. 37(10): 1615-1622. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.0567

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  32. White, Chapin 2017. “Hospital Prices in Indiana: Findings from an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative”. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR2106.html

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  33. White, Chapin and Whaley, Christopher. 2019. “Prices Paid to Hospitals by Private Health Plans Are High Relative to Medicare and Vary Widely”. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR3033.html

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  34. White, Chapin 2017. “Hospital Prices in Indiana: Findings from an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative”. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR2106.html

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  35. Ginsburg, Paul. 2010. “Wide Variation in Hospital and Physician Payment Rates Evidence of Provider Market Power”. Center for Studying Health Systems Change, Research Brief No. 16. http://www.hschange.org/CONTENT/1162/#ib2

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  36. White, Chapin et. al. 2013. “High and Varying Prices for Privately Insured Patients Underscore Hospital Market Power”. Center for Studying Health Systems Change, Research Brief No. 27. http://www.hschange.org/CONTENT/1375/1375.pdf

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  37. White, Chapin and Whaley, Christopher. 2019. “Prices Paid to Hospitals by Private Health Plans Are High Relative to Medicare and Vary Widely”. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR3033.html

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  38. Ge, Bai and Anderson, Gerard. 2018. “Market Power: Price Variation Among Commercial Insurers for Hospital Services”. Health Affairs. 37(10): 1615-1622. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.0567

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  39. American Hospital Association. 2018. Trendwatch Chartbook 2018: Trends Affecting Hospitals and Health Systems. https://www.aha.org/guidesreports/2018-05-22-trendwatch-chartbook-2018

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  40. Maeda, Jared and Nelson, Lyle. 2017. “An Analysis of Private Sector Prices for Hospital Admissions”. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office, Working Paper 2017-02. https://www.cbo.gov/system/files/115th-congress-2017-2018/workingpaper/52567-hospitalprices.pdf

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  41. Baker, Laurence et. al. 2016. “Medicare Advantage Plans Pay Less Than Traditional Medicare Pays”. Health Affairs. 35(8): 1444-1451. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1553

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  42. Cooper, Zack et. al. 2018. “The Price Ain’t Right? Hospital Prices and Health Spending on the Privately Insured”. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 21815. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w21815

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  43. Wallace, Jacob and Song, Zirui 2016. “Traditional Medical Versus Private Insurance: How Spending, Volume, and Price Change at Age Sixty-Five”. Health Affairs. 35(5): 864-872. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1195

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  44. Wallace, Jacob and Song, Zirui 2016. “Traditional Medical Versus Private Insurance: How Spending, Volume, and Price Change at Age Sixty-Five”. Health Affairs. 35(5): 864-872. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1195

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  45. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. March 2019. Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy. Washington, D.C.: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. http://www.medpac.gov/-documents-/reports

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  46. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. 2019. Hospital Acute Inpatient Services Payment System. Washington, D.C.: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. http://medpac.gov/docs/default-source/payment-basics/medpac_payment_basics_19_hospital_final_v2_sec.pdf?sfvrsn=0

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  47. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. 2019. Outpatient Hospital Services Payment System. Washington, D.C.: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. http://medpac.gov/docs/default-source/payment-basics/medpac_payment_basics_19_opd_final_sec.pdf?sfvrsn=0

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  48. Baker, Laurence et. al. 2016. “Medicare Advantage Plans Pay Less Than Traditional Medicare Pays”. Health Affairs. 35(8): 1444-1451. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1553

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  49. Kronick, Richard and Neyaz, Sarah. 2019. Private Insurance Payments to California Hospitals Average More Than Double Medicare Payments. Washington, D.C.: West Health Policy Center. https://assets-global.website-files.com/5c65bc6ef2c54007f2d69d05/5ce21ad67e30fb151b1f4caa_West%20Health%20Policy%20Center
    %20Hospital%20Pricing%20Analysis%20May%202019.pdf

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  50. Maeda, Jared and Nelson, Lyle. 2017. “An Analysis of Private Sector Prices for Hospital Admissions”. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office, Working Paper 2017-02. https://www.cbo.gov/system/files/115th-congress-2017-2018/workingpaper/52567-hospitalprices.pdf

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  51. White, Chapin et. al. 2013. “High and Varying Prices for Privately Insured Patients Underscore Hospital Market Power”. Center for Studying Health Systems Change, Research Brief No. 27. http://www.hschange.org/CONTENT/1375/1375.pdf

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  52. White, Chapin 2017. “Hospital Prices in Indiana: Findings from an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative”. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR2106.html

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  53. White, Chapin and Whaley, Christopher. 2019. “Prices Paid to Hospitals by Private Health Plans Are High Relative to Medicare and Vary Widely”. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR3033.html

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  54. American Hospital Association. 2018. Trendwatch Chartbook 2018: Trends Affecting Hospitals and Health Systems. https://www.aha.org/guidesreports/2018-05-22-trendwatch-chartbook-2018

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  55. Selden, Thomas, et. al. 2015. “The Growing Difference Between Public and Private Payments for Inpatient Hospital Care”. Health Affairs. 34(12): 2147-2150. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.0706

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  56. Selden, Thomas, et. al. 2015. “The Growing Difference Between Public and Private Payments for Inpatient Hospital Care”. Health Affairs. 34(12): 2147-2150. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.0706

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  57. Selden, Thomas. 2020. “Differences Between Public And Private Hospital Payment Rates Narrowed, 2012–16”. Health Affairs. 39(1): 94-99. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2019.00415

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  58. Trish, Erin et. al. 2017. “Physician Reimbursement in Medicare Advantage Compared with Traditional Medicare and Commercial Health Insurance”. JAMA Internal Medicine. 177(9): 1287-1295. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2643349

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  59. Pelech, Daria. 2018. “An Analysis of Private Sector Prices for Physicians’ Services”. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office, Working Paper 2018-01. https://www.cbo.gov/system/files/115th-congress-2017-2018/workingpaper/53441-workingpaper.pdf

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  60. Song, Zirui 2019. “The Pricing of Care Under Medicare for All: Implications and Policy Choices”. JAMA. 322(5): 395-396. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2737591

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  61. White, Chapin and Whaley, Christopher. 2019. “Prices Paid to Hospitals by Private Health Plans Are High Relative to Medicare and Vary Widely”. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR3033.html

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  62. Ginsburg, Paul. 2010. “Wide Variation in Hospital and Physician Payment Rates Evidence of Provider Market Power”. Center for Studying Health Systems Change, Research Brief No. 16. http://www.hschange.org/CONTENT/1162/#ib2

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  63. Pelech, Daria. 2018. “An Analysis of Private Sector Prices for Physicians’ Services”. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office, Working Paper 2018-01. https://www.cbo.gov/system/files/115th-congress-2017-2018/workingpaper/53441-workingpaper.pdf

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  64. Pelech, Daria. 2018. “An Analysis of Private Sector Prices for Physicians’ Services”. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office, Working Paper 2018-01. https://www.cbo.gov/system/files/115th-congress-2017-2018/workingpaper/53441-workingpaper.pdf

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  65. Biener, Adam and Selden, Thomas. 2017. “Public and Private Payments for Physician Office Visits”. Health Affairs. 36(12): 2160-2164. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2017.0749

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  66. Trish, Erin et. al. 2017. “Physician Reimbursement in Medicare Advantage Compared with Traditional Medicare and Commercial Health Insurance”. JAMA Internal Medicine. 177(9): 1287-1295. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2643349

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  67. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. March 2018. Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy. Washington, D.C.: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. http://www.medpac.gov/-documents-/reports

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  68. Biener, Adam and Selden, Thomas. 2017. “Public and Private Payments for Physician Office Visits”. Health Affairs. 36(12): 2160-2164. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2017.0749

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  69. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. March 2019. Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy. Washington, D.C.: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. http://www.medpac.gov/-documents-/reports

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  70. Song, Zirui 2019. “The Pricing of Care Under Medicare for All: Implications and Policy Choices”. JAMA. 322(5): 395-396. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2737591

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  71. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. 2019. Physician and Other Health Professional Payment System. Washington, D.C.: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. http://medpac.gov/docs/default-source/payment-basics/medpac_payment_basics_19_physician_final_sec.pdf?sfvrsn=0

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  72. Trish, Erin et. al. 2017. “Physician Reimbursement in Medicare Advantage Compared with Traditional Medicare and Commercial Health Insurance”. JAMA Internal Medicine. 177(9): 1287-1295. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2643349

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  73. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. March 2019. Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy. Washington, D.C.: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. http://www.medpac.gov/-documents-/reports

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  74. Pelech, Daria. 2018. “An Analysis of Private Sector Prices for Physicians’ Services”. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office, Working Paper 2018-01. https://www.cbo.gov/system/files/115th-congress-2017-2018/workingpaper/53441-workingpaper.pdf

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  75. White, Chapin et. al. 2013. “High and Varying Prices for Privately Insured Patients Underscore Hospital Market Power”. Center for Studying Health Systems Change, Research Brief No. 27. http://www.hschange.org/CONTENT/1375/1375.pdf

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  76. Wallace, Jacob and Song, Zirui 2016. “Traditional Medical Versus Private Insurance: How Spending, Volume, and Price Change at Age Sixty-Five”. Health Affairs. 35(5): 864-872. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1195

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  77. Pelech, Daria. 2018. “An Analysis of Private Sector Prices for Physicians’ Services”. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office, Working Paper 2018-01. https://www.cbo.gov/system/files/115th-congress-2017-2018/workingpaper/53441-workingpaper.pdf

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  78. Ginsburg, Paul. 2010. “Wide Variation in Hospital and Physician Payment Rates Evidence of Provider Market Power”. Center for Studying Health Systems Change, Research Brief No. 16. http://www.hschange.org/CONTENT/1162/#ib2

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  79. Song, Zirui 2019. “The Pricing of Care Under Medicare for All: Implications and Policy Choices”. JAMA. 322(5): 395-396. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2737591

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  80. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. March 2019. Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy. Washington, D.C.: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. http://www.medpac.gov/-documents-/reports

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  81. Trish, Erin et. al. 2017. “Physician Reimbursement in Medicare Advantage Compared with Traditional Medicare and Commercial Health Insurance”. JAMA Internal Medicine. 177(9): 1287-1295. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2643349

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  82. Wallace, Jacob and Song, Zirui 2016. “Traditional Medical Versus Private Insurance: How Spending, Volume, and Price Change at Age Sixty-Five”. Health Affairs. 35(5): 864-872. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1195

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  83. White, Chapin et. al. 2013. “High and Varying Prices for Privately Insured Patients Underscore Hospital Market Power”. Center for Studying Health Systems Change, Research Brief No. 27. http://www.hschange.org/CONTENT/1375/1375.pdf

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  84. Biener, Adam and Selden, Thomas. 2017. “Public and Private Payments for Physician Office Visits”. Health Affairs. 36(12): 2160-2164. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2017.0749

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  85. Pelech, Daria. 2018. “An Analysis of Private Sector Prices for Physicians’ Services”. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office, Working Paper 2018-01. https://www.cbo.gov/system/files/115th-congress-2017-2018/workingpaper/53441-workingpaper.pdf

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  86. Ginsburg, Paul. 2010. “Wide Variation in Hospital and Physician Payment Rates Evidence of Provider Market Power”. Center for Studying Health Systems Change, Research Brief No. 16. http://www.hschange.org/CONTENT/1162/#ib2

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  87. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. March 2019. Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy. Washington, D.C.: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. http://www.medpac.gov/-documents-/reports

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  88. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. March 2019. Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy. Washington, D.C.: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. http://www.medpac.gov/-documents-/reports

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  89. American Hospital Association. 2018. Trendwatch Chartbook 2018: Trends Affecting Hospitals and Health Systems. https://www.aha.org/guidesreports/2018-05-22-trendwatch-chartbook-2018

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  90. American Hospital Association. 2020. Fact Sheet: Underpayment by Medicare and Medicaid. Chicago, IL: American Hospital Association. https://www.aha.org/fact-sheets/2020-01-07-fact-sheet-underpayment-medicare-and-medicaid

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  91. Dranove, David and Lindrooth, Richard. 2003. "Hospital Consolidation and Costs: Another Look at the Evidence." Journal of Health Economics. 22: 983-997. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14604556

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  93. Gaynor, Martin and Vogt, William. 2003. "Competition Among Hospitals," The RAND Journal of Economics. 34:764-785. https://www.nber.org/papers/w9471

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  94. Gaynor, Martin et. al. 2015. "The Industrial Organization of Health-Care Markets." Journal of Economic Literature. 53(2): 235-84. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/jel.53.2.235

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  95. Feng, Yan et. al. 2015. “Association Between Market Concentration of Hospitals and Patient Health Gain Following Hip Replacement Surgery”. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy. 20(1): 11-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4268175/

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  96. Neprash, Hannah, et. al. 2015. “Association of Financial Integration Between Physicians and Hospitals with Commercial Health Care Prices”. JAMA Internal Medicine. 175(12):1932-1939. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2463591

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  97. Anderson, Gerard et. al. 2003. “It’s the Prices, Stupid: Why the United States Is So Different From Other Countries”. Health Affairs. 22(3): 89-105. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.22.3.89

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  98. Anderson, Gerard et. al. 2019. “It’s Still the Prices, Stupid: Why the U.S. Spends So Much on Health Care, and a Tribute to Uwe Reinhardt”. Health Affairs. 38(1): 87-95. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05144

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  99. Cooper, Zack et. al. 2018. “The Price Ain’t Right? Hospital Prices and Health Spending on the Privately Insured”. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 21815. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w21815

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  100. Burke, Leah and Ryan, Andrew. 2014. “The Complex Relationship Between Cost and Quality in U.S. Health Care”. AMA J. Ethics. 16(2): 124-130. https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/complex-relationship-between-cost-and-quality-us-health-care/2014-02

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  101. Fulton, Brent. 2017. “Health Care Market Concentration Trends in the United States: Evidence and Policy Responses”. Health Affairs. 36(9): 1530-1538. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2017.0556

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