Filling the need for trusted information on national health issues…

The Relationship Between Work and Health: Findings from a Literature Review

Issue Brief
  1. Sarah Olesen, Peter Butterworth, Liana Leach, Margaret Kelaher, and Jane Pirkis, “Mental Health Affects Future Employment as Job Loss Affects Mental Health: Findings from a Longitudinal Population Study,” BMC Psychiatry 13 (2013), https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-244X-13-144

    ← Return to text

  2. Peter Butterworth, Liana Leach, Jane Pirkis, and Margaret Kelaher, ”Poor Mental Health Influences Risk and Duration of Unemployment: A Prospective Study,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 47 no. 6 (June 2012): 1013-1021, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00127-011-0409-1

    ← Return to text

  3. Rogier van Rijn, Suzan Robroek, Sandra Brouwer, and Alex Burdorf, “Influence of Poor Health on Exit from Paid Employment: A Systematic Review,” Occupational & Environmental Medicine 71 no. 4, (2014): pp. 295-301, https://oem.bmj.com/content/71/4/295

    ← Return to text

  4. Merel Schuring et al., “The Effect of Ill Health and Socioeconomic Status on Labor Force Exist and Re-Employment: A Prospective Study with Ten Years Follow-Up in the Netherlands,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health 39 no. 2 (March 2013): pp. 134.

    ← Return to text

  5. Merel Schuring et al., “The Effects of Ill Health on Entering and Maintaining Paid Employment: Evidence in European Countries,” Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 61 (2007): pp. 597-604,  https://jech.bmj.com/content/61/7/597.full

    ← Return to text

  6. Rogier van Rijn, Suzan Robroek, Sandra Brouwer, and Alex Burdorf, “Influence of Poor Health on Exit from Paid Employment: A Systematic Review,” Occupational & Environmental Medicine 71 no. 4, (2014): pp. 295-301, https://oem.bmj.com/content/71/4/295

    ← Return to text

  7. Sarah Olesen, Peter Butterworth, Liana Leach, Margaret Kelaher, and Jane Pirkis, “Mental Health Affects Future Employment as Job Loss Affects Mental Health: Findings from a Longitudinal Population Study,” BMC Psychiatry 13 (2013), https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-244X-13-144

    ← Return to text

  8. Victoria Blinder et al., “Women with Breast Cancer Who Work For Accommodating Employers More Likely To Retain Jobs After Treatment,” Health Affairs 36 no. 2 (February 2017), https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.1196

    ← Return to text

  9. Merel Schuring et al., “The Effects of Ill Health on Entering and Maintaining Paid Employment: Evidence in European Countries,” Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 61 (2007): pp. 597-604,  https://jech.bmj.com/content/61/7/597.full

    ← Return to text

  10. Victoria Blinder et al., “Women with Breast Cancer Who Work For Accommodating Employers More Likely To Retain Jobs After Treatment,” Health Affairs 36 no. 2 (February 2017), https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.1196

    ← Return to text

  11. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Consequences of Drug Misuse (Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, March 2017), https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/health-consequences-drug-misuse

    ← Return to text

  12. Neil Jordan et al., “Economic Benefit of Chemical Dependency Treatment to Employers,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 34, 3(2008):311-319

    ← Return to text

  13. Ronald C. Kessler et al., “Depression in the Workplace: Effects on Short-term Disability,” Health Affairs (Millwood) 18, 5(1999):163-71

    ← Return to text

  14. Cheryl J. Cherpitel and Yu Ye, “Drug Use and Problem Drinking Associated with Primary Care and Emergency Room Utilization in the US General Population: Data from the 2005 National Alcohol Survey,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 97 3(2008):226-30

    ← Return to text

  15. Doris J. James and Lauren E. Glaze, Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, December 2006), https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/mhppji.pdf

    ← Return to text

  16. The Ohio Department of Medicaid, Ohio Medicaid Group VIII Assessment: A Report to the Ohio General Assembly (The Ohio Department of Medicaid, January 2017).

    ← Return to text

  17. University of Michigan Institute for Healthcare Policy & Innovation, Medicaid Expansion Helped Enrollees Do Better at Work or in Job Searches (June 2017), http://ihpi.umich.edu/news/medicaid-expansion-helped-enrollees-do-better-work-or-job-searches

    ← Return to text

  18. Bureau of Business and Economic Research, The Economic Impact of Medicaid Expansion in Montana (University of Montana Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Prepared for the Montana Healthcare Foundation and Headwaters Foundation, April 2018), https://mthcf.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/BBER-MT-Medicaid-Expansion-Report_4.11.18.pdf

    ← Return to text

  19. Jean Hall, Adele Shartzer, Noelle Kurth, and Kathleen Thomas, “Medicaid Expansion as an Employment Incentive Program for People With Disabilities,” American Journal of Public Health epub ahead of print (July 2018), https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304536

    ← Return to text

  20. Heeju Sohn and Stefan Timmermans, “Social Effects of Health Care Reform: Medicaid Expansion under the Affordable Care Act and Changes in Volunteering,” Socius: Socialogical Research for a Dynamic World 3 (March 2017): 1-12, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2378023117700903

    ← Return to text

  21. Sohn and Timmermans used the volunteering supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) to measure volunteerism. Analyzed changes in formal volunteering based on two CPS questions: “Since September 1st of last year, have you done any volunteering activities through or for an organization?” and, “Sometimes people don’t think of activities they do infrequently or activities they do for children’s schools or youth organizations as volunteer activities. Since September 1st of last year, have you done any of these types of volunteer activities?”  Also separately analyzed changes in informal helping based on one CPS question: “Since September 1st of last year, have you worked with people in your neighborhood to fix or improve something?”

    ← Return to text

  22. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  23. The authors judged 23 of these studies to be “high quality” studied from a methodological perspective, and they classified the remaining 10 as “low quality” studies from a methodological perspective.

    ← Return to text

  24. Maaike van der Noordt, Helma IJzelenberg, Mariel Droomers, and Karin Proper, “Health Effects of Employment: A systematic Review of Prospective Studies,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 71 (October 2014): 730-736, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24556535

    ← Return to text

  25. K. Hergenrather, et al., Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship Between Employment Status and Physical Health, Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education (2015), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273333771_Employment_as_a_Social_Determinant_of_Health_A_Systematic_Review_
    of_Longitudinal_Studies_Exploring_the_Relationship_Between_Employment_Status_and_Physical_Health

    ← Return to text

  26. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  27. Robert Jin, Chandrakant Shah, and Tomislav Svoboda, “The Impact of Unemployment on Health: A Review of the Evidence,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 153, no. 5 (September 1995), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1487417/

    ← Return to text

  28. K. Hergenrather, et al., Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship Between Employment Status and Physical Health, Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education (2015), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273333771_Employment_as_a_Social_Determinant_of_Health_A_Systematic_Review_of_
    Longitudinal_Studies_Exploring_the_Relationship_Between_Employment_Status_and_Physical_Health

    ← Return to text

  29. Jennifer Pharr, Sheniz Moonie, and Timothy Bungum, “The Impact of Unemployment on Mental and Physical Health, Access to Health Care and Health Risk Behaviors,” International Scholarly Research Network Public Health (2012), https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/483432/  

    ← Return to text

  30. Carl McClean et al., Worklessness and Health—What do we Know about the Causal Relationship? (London: Health Development Agency, 2005), http://www.employabilityinscotland.com/media/83147/worklessness-and-health-what-do-we-know-about-the-relationship.pdf

    ← Return to text

  31. Gregory Murphy and James Athanasou, “The Effect of Unemployment on Mental Health,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 72 (March 1999): 83-99, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1348/096317999166518

    ← Return to text

  32. Sarah Olesen, Peter Butterworth, Liana Leach, Margaret Kelaher, and Jane Pirkis, “Mental Health Affects Future Employment as Job Loss Affects Mental Health: Findings from a Longitudinal Population Study,” BMC Psychiatry 13 (2013), https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-244X-13-144

    ← Return to text

  33. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  34. Karsten Paul and Klaus Moser, “Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta Analyses,” Journal of Vocational Behavior 74, no.3 (June 2009): 264-282, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0001879109000037

    ← Return to text

  35. Frances McKee-Ryan, Zhaoli Song, Connie Wanberg, and Angelo Kinicki, “Psychological and Physical Well-Being During Unemployment: A Meta-Analytic Study,” Journal of Applied Psychology 90 no. 1 (January 2005): 53-76, http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2F0021-9010.90.1.53

    ← Return to text

  36. Frances McKee-Ryan, Zhaoli Song, Connie Wanberg, and Angelo Kinicki, “Psychological and Physical Well-Being During Unemployment: A Meta-Analytic Study,” Journal of Applied Psychology 90 no. 1 (January 2005): 53-76, http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2F0021-9010.90.1.53

    ← Return to text

  37. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  38. Karsten Paul and Klaus Moser, “Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta Analyses,” Journal of Vocational Behavior 74, no.3 (June 2009): 264-282, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0001879109000037

    ← Return to text

  39. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  40. Karsten Paul and Klaus Moser, “Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta Analyses,” Journal of Vocational Behavior 74, no.3 (June 2009): 264-282, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0001879109000037

    ← Return to text

  41. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  42. Urban Janlert, Anthony Winefield, and Anne Hammarstrom, “Length of Unemployment and Health-Related Outcomes: A Life-Course Analysis,” European Journal of Public Health 25 no. 4 (August 2015), https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/25/4/662/2398865

    ← Return to text

  43. Steve Crabtree, “In U.S., Depression Rates Higher for Long-Term Unemployed,” Gallup (June 2014), http://news.gallup.com/poll/171044/depression-rates-higher-among-long-term-unemployed.aspx

    ← Return to text

  44. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  45. Frances McKee-Ryan, Zhaoli Song, Connie Wanberg, and Angelo Kinicki, “Psychological and Physical Well-Being During Unemployment: A Meta-Analytic Study,” Journal of Applied Psychology 90 no. 1 (January 2005): 53-76, http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2F0021-9010.90.1.53

    ← Return to text

  46. Existing research does suggest that for a minority of people, unemployment can lead to improved health and well-being. See Waddell and Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  47. Sergio Rueda et al., “Association of Returning to Work with Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review,” American Journal of Public Health 102 no. 3 (March 2012): 541-556, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3487667/

    ← Return to text

  48. Sergio Rueda et al., “Association of Returning to Work with Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review,” American Journal of Public Health 102 no. 3 (March 2012): 541-556, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3487667/

    ← Return to text

  49. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  50. Peter Butterworth et al., “The Psychosocial Quality of Work Determines Whether Employment Has Benefits for Mental Health: Results From a Longitudinal National Household Panel Survey,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68 no. 11 (2011): pp. 806-812, https://oem.bmj.com/content/68/11/806.long

    ← Return to text

  51. Marianna Virtanen et al., “Temporary Employment and Health: A Review,” International Journal of Epidemiology 34 (2005): 610-622, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15737968

    ← Return to text

  52. Pekka Virtanen, Urban Janlert, and Anne Hammarstrom, “Exposure to temporary employment and job insecurity: A Longitudinal Study of the Health Effects,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 68, no. 8 (August 2011): 570-574, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21081513

    ← Return to text

  53. Joseph Grzywacz and David Dooley, “’Good jobs’ to ‘bad jobs’: replicated evidence of an employment continuum from two large surveys,” Social Science and Medicine 56 no. 8 (April 2003): 1749-1760, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12639591

    ← Return to text

  54. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  55. David Dooley and JoAnn Prause, “Underemployment and Alcohol Misuse in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 50 no. 6 (1998): 669-680, https://www.jsad.com/doi/pdf/10.15288/jsa.1998.59.669

    ← Return to text

  56. JoAnn Prause and David Dooley, “Effect of Underemployment on School-Leavers’ Self-Esteem,” Journal of Adolescence, 20 no. 3 (1997): 243-260, http://psycnet.apa.org/record/1997-04916-002

    ← Return to text

  57. Tae Jun Kim and O von dem Knesebeck, “Perceived job insecurity, unemployment and depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta‑analysis of prospective observational studies,” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 89 no. 4 (May 2016): 561-573, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26715495

    ← Return to text

  58. Peter Butterworth et al., “The Psychosocial Quality of Work Determines Whether Employment Has Benefits for Mental Health: Results From a Longitudinal National Household Panel Survey,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68 no. 11 (2011): pp. 806-812, https://oem.bmj.com/content/68/11/806.long

    ← Return to text

  59. Joseph Grzywacz and David Dooley, “’Good jobs’ to ‘bad jobs’: replicated evidence of an employment continuum from two large surveys,” Social Science and Medicine 56 no. 8 (April 2003): 1749-1760, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12639591

    ← Return to text

  60. Sergio Rueda et al., “Association of Returning to Work with Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review,” American Journal of Public Health 102 no. 3 (March 2012): 541-556, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3487667/

    ← Return to text

  61. Ritam Chowdhury, Divyang Shah, and Abhishek Payal, “Healthy Worker Effect Phenomenon: Revisited with Emphasis on Statistical Methods – A review,” Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 21, no. 1 (2017): 2-8, http://www.ijoem.com/article.asp?issn=0973-2284;year=2017;volume=21;issue=1;spage=2;epage=8;aulast=Chowdhury

    ← Return to text

  62. Pekka Virtanen, Urban Janlert, and Anne Hammarstrom, “Health status and health behaviour as predictors of the occurrence of unemployment and prolonged unemployment,” Public Health 127 no. 1 (January 2013): 46-52, https://www.publichealthjrnl.com/article/S0033-3506(12)00370-8/fulltext

    ← Return to text

  63. Silje Kaspersen et al., “Health and Unemployment: 14 Years of Follow-Up on Job Loss in the Norwegian HUNT Study,” European Journal of Public Health, 26 no. 2 (April 2016): 312-317, https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/26/2/312/2570411

    ← Return to text

  64. Catherine Ross and John Mirowsky, “Does Employment Affect Health?,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36 (September 1995): 230-243, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/15605496_Does_Employment_Affect_Health

    ← Return to text

  65. Maaike van der Noordt, Helma IJzelenberg, Mariel Droomers, and Karin Proper, “Health Effects of Employment: A systematic Review of Prospective Studies,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 71 (October 2014): 730-736, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24556535

    ← Return to text

  66. Maaike van der Noordt, Helma IJzelenberg, Mariel Droomers, and Karin Proper, “Health Effects of Employment: A systematic Review of Prospective Studies,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 71 (October 2014): 730-736, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24556535

    ← Return to text

  67. Pekka Virtanen, Urban Janlert, and Anne Hammarstrom, “Exposure to temporary employment and job insecurity: A Longitudinal Study of the Health Effects,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 68, no. 8 (August 2011): 570-574, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21081513

    ← Return to text

  68. Maaike van der Noordt, Helma IJzelenberg, Mariel Droomers, and Karin Proper, “Health Effects of Employment: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 71 (October 2014): 730-736, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24556535

    ← Return to text

  69. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  70. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2017 Employer Health Benefits Survey (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, September 2017), https://www.kff.org/report-section/ehbs-2017-section-2-health-benefits-offer-rates/

    ← Return to text

  71. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2017 Employer Health Benefits Survey (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, September 2017), https://www.kff.org/report-section/ehbs-2017-section-3-employee-coverage-eligibility-and-participation/

    ← Return to text

  72. Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2017 Current Population Survey.

    ← Return to text

  73. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2017 Employer Health Benefits Survey (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, September 2017), https://www.kff.org/report-section/ehbs-2017-section-6-worker-and-employer-contributions-for-premiums/

    ← Return to text

  74. Julia Foutz, Anthony Damico, Ellen Squires, and Rachel Garfield, The Uninsured: A Primer - Key Facts about Health Insurance and the Uninsured Under the Affordable Care Act (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, December 2017), https://www.kff.org/uninsured/report/the-uninsured-a-primer-key-facts-about-health-insurance-and-the-uninsured-under-the-affordable-care-act/

    ← Return to text

  75. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, “Opportunities to Promote Work and Community Engagement Among Medicaid Beneficiaries,” (Letter to State Medicaid Directors, CMS, January 2018), https://www.medicaid.gov/federal-policy-guidance/downloads/smd18002.pdf

    ← Return to text

  76. Caroline Jenkinson et al., “Is Volunteering a Public Health Intervention? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Health and Survival of Volunteers,” BMC Public Health 13 (2013), https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-13-773

    ← Return to text

  77. Caroline Jenkinson et al., “Is Volunteering a Public Health Intervention? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Health and Survival of Volunteers,” BMC Public Health 13 (2013), https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-13-773

    ← Return to text

  78. Jerf Yeung, Zhuoni Zhang, and Tae Yeun Kim, “Volunteering and Health Benefits in General Adults: Cumulative Effects and Forms,” BMC Public Health 18 no. 8 (2018), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5504679/

    ← Return to text

  79. Joseph Grzywacz and David Dooley, “’Good jobs’ to ‘bad jobs’: replicated evidence of an employment continuum from two large surveys,” Social Science and Medicine 56 no. 8 (April 2003): 1749-1760, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12639591

    ← Return to text

  80. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  81. Carl Mclean et al., Worklessness and Health—What do we Know about the Causal Relationship? (London: Health Development Agency, 2005), http://www.employabilityinscotland.com/media/83147/worklessness-and-health-what-do-we-know-about-the-relationship.pdf

    ← Return to text

  82. In 2016, 7% of nonelderly adults in Medicaid reported being in “poor” health compared to 2% of the US total nonelderly adult population, and 17% of nonelderly adults in Medicaid reported being in “fair” health compared to 9% of the US total nonelderly adult population (both differences between the two populations were statistically significant).

    A significantly greater percentage of Medicaid nonelderly adults compared to US total nonelderly adults also reported: that they often or sometimes cannot afford to eat balanced meals (26% vs. 11%), that they often or sometimes worry food will run out before they have money to buy more (34% vs. 15%), and that they are very or moderately worried about rent, mortgage, or other housing costs (42% vs. 24%). (Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2016 National Health Interview Survey data).

    ← Return to text

  83. Julia Paradise and Rachel Garfield, What is Medicaid's Impact on Access to Care, Health Outcomes, and Quality of Care? Setting the Record Straight on the Evidence (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/what-is-medicaids-impact-on-access-to-care-health-outcomes-and-quality-of-care-setting-the-record-straight-on-the-evidence/

    ← Return to text

  84. Julia Paradise, Barbara Lyons, and Diane Rowland, Medicaid at 50 (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, May 2015), https://www.kff.org/medicaid/report/medicaid-at-50/

    ← Return to text

  85. For more detailed information on work requirement age exemptions by state, see the detailed work requirement waiver table that is downloadable through the KFF Medicaid Waiver Tracker: https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/which-states-have-approved-and-pending-section-1115-medicaid-waivers/

    ← Return to text

  86. Marcia Gibson et al., “Welfare-To-Work Interventions and their Effects on the Mental and Physical Health of Lone Parents and their Children,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (February 2018), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5846185/

    ← Return to text

  87. Kimberly Narain et al. “The Impact of Welfare Reform on the Health Insurance Coverage, Utilization, and Health of Low Education Single Mothers,” Social Science and Medicine 180 (March 2017): pp. 28-35, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28319907

    ← Return to text

  88. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  89. Maaike van der Noordt, Helma IJzelenberg, Mariel Droomers, and Karin Proper, “Health Effects of Employment: A systematic Review of Prospective Studies,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 71 (October 2014): 730-736, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24556535

    ← Return to text

  90. Rachel Garfield, Robin Rudowitz, MaryBeth Musumeci, and Anthony Damico, Implications of Work Requirements in Medicaid: What Does the Data Say? (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, June 2018), https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/implications-of-work-requirements-in-medicaid-what-does-the-data-say/

    ← Return to text

  91. Joseph Grzywacz and David Dooley, “’Good jobs’ to ‘bad jobs’: replicated evidence of an employment continuum from two large surveys,” Social Science and Medicine 56 no. 8 (April 2003): 1749-1760, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12639591

    ← Return to text

  92. Gordon Waddell and A. Kim Burton, Is Work Good for your Health and Well-Being?, (2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/is-work-good-for-your-health-and-well-being

    ← Return to text

  93. Ibid.

    ← Return to text

  94. MaryBeth Musumeci and Julia Zur, Medicaid Enrollees and Work Requirements: Lessons from the TANF Experience (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, August 2017), https://www.kff.org/report-section/medicaid-enrollees-and-work-requirements-issue-brief/#endnote_link_232243-20

    ← Return to text

  95. LaDonna Pavetti, Work Requirements Don’t Cut Poverty, Evidence Shows (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, June 2016), https://www.cbpp.org/research/poverty-and-inequality/work-requirements-dont-cut-poverty-evidence-shows

    ← Return to text

  96. Marcia Gibson et al., “Welfare-To-Work Interventions and their Effects on the Mental and Physical Health of Lone Parents and their Children,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (February 2018), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5846185/

    ← Return to text

  97. Gayle Hamilton et al., National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies: How Effective are Difference Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs, (Washington, DC: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, December 2001), http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/full_391.pdf

    ← Return to text

  98. Tazra Mitchell, LaDonna Pavetti, and Yixuan Huang, Life After TANF in Kansas: For Most, Unsteady Work and Earnings Below Half the Poverty Line (Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, February 2018), https://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/1-23-18kstanf.pdf

    ← Return to text

  99. Rachel Garfield, Robin Rudowitz, and MaryBeth Musumeci, Implications of a Medicaid Work Requirement: National Estimates of Potential Coverage Losses (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, June 2018), https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/implications-of-a-medicaid-work-requirement-national-estimates-of-potential-coverage-losses/

    ← Return to text

  100. John Cawley, Mathis Schroeder, and Kosali Simon, “How Did Welfare Reform Affect the Health Insurance Coverage of Women and Children?,” Health Services Research 41 no. 2 (April 2006), 486-506, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1702522/

    ← Return to text

  101. Marianne Bitler, Jonah Gelbaxch, and Hilary Hoynes, “Welfare Reform and Health,” The Journal of Human Resources 40 no. 2 (2005): pp. 309-334, https://www.jstor.org/stable/4129526?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

    ← Return to text

  102. Robert Kaestner and Neeraj Kaushal, “Welfare Reform and Health Insurance Coverage of Low-Income Families,” Journal of Health Economics 22 (2003): 959-981, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14604555

    ← Return to text

  103. Kaiser Family Foundation, Participation in Welfare and Medicaid Enrollment (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, August 1998), https://www.kff.org/medicaid/participation-in-welfare-and-medicaid-enrollment/

    ← Return to text

  104. John Cawley, Mathis Schroeder, and Kosali Simon, “How Did Welfare Reform Affect the Health Insurance Coverage of Women and Children?,” Health Services Research 41 no. 2 (April 2006), 486-506, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1702522/

    ← Return to text

  105. Gayle Hamilton, Stephen Freedman, and Sharon McGroder, National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Strategies, (US Department of Health and Human Services, June 200), https://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/do_mandatory_welfare-to-work_programs_affect_fr.pdf

    ← Return to text

  106. Robin Rudowitz and Rachel Garfield, 10 Things to Know About Medicaid: Setting the Facts Straight (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, April 2018), https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/10-things-to-know-about-medicaid-setting-the-facts-straight/

    ← Return to text

  107. Kaiser Family Foundation, Key Facts about the Uninsured Population (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, November 2017), https://www.kff.org/uninsured/fact-sheet/key-facts-about-the-uninsured-population/

    ← Return to text

  108. Brenda J. Lohman et al., “Welfare Reform: What About the Children,” Welfare, Children & Families 02-1(2002): 1-8, https://works.bepress.com/brenda_lohman/3/

    ← Return to text

  109. John Cook et al., “Welfare Reform and the Health of Young Children: A Sentinel Survey in 6 US Cities,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 156 no. 7, (2002): 678-684, https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/203607

    ← Return to text

  110. Gloria Krahn, Deborah Walker, and Rosaly Correa-De-Araujo, “Persons with Disabilities as an Unrecognized Health Disparity Population,” American Journal of Public Health 105 (April 2015), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355692/

    ← Return to text

  111. Samantha Artiga, Julia Foutz, Elizabeth Cornachione, and Rachel Garfield, Key Facts on Health and Health Care by Race and Ethnicity (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, June 2016), https://www.kff.org/disparities-policy/report/key-facts-on-health-and-health-care-by-race-and-ethnicity/

    ← Return to text

  112. Mathematica Policy Research, Assisting TANF Recipients Living with Disabilities to Obtain and Maintain Employment:  Conducting In-Depth Assessments (Feb. 2008), https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/opre/conducting_in_depth.pdf

    ← Return to text

  113. Heather Hahn et al., Work Requirements in Social Safety Net Programs, (Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, December 2017), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/95566/work-requirements-in-social-safety-net-programs.pdf

    ← Return to text

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Headquarters: 2400 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 | Phone 650-854-9400
Washington Offices and Barbara Jordan Conference Center: 1330 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005 | Phone 202-347-5270

www.kff.org | Email Alerts: kff.org/email | facebook.com/KaiserFamilyFoundation | twitter.com/KaiserFamFound

Filling the need for trusted information on national health issues, the Kaiser Family Foundation is a nonprofit organization based in Menlo Park, California.