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Implications of Work Requirements in Medicaid: What Does the Data Say?

Issue Brief
  1. Harold F. O’Neil, Jr., ed. Work Readiness: Competencies and Assessment. (New York: Psychology Press), 2014.

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  2. Hope Clark, et al. Work Readiness Standards and Benchmarks: The Key to Differentiating America’s Workforce and Regaining Global Competitiveness. (Iowa City, IA: ACT), 2013; available at: http://www.act.org/content/dam/act/unsecured/documents/Work-Readiness-Standards-and-Benchmarks.pdf

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  3. Full-time workers include people working 35 hours or more, those who worked 1-34 hours for noneconomic reasons (e.g., illness) and usually work full-time, and people "with a job but not at work" who usually work full- time. People working full time may work at more than one job.

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  4. Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

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  5. Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of Outgoing Rotation Group data in 2017 Current Population Survey (CPS).

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  6. Family food insecurity is based on a 10-item scale of questions addressing adult 30-day food security. See https://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/FSGuide.pdf for more information.

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  7. Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2017 CPS Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC).

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  8. Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of Outgoing Rotation Group data in 2017 CPS

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  9. Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2016 NHIS.

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  10. Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2017 CPS ASEC.

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  11. Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2016 NHIS.

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  12. Question asks “How often do you use a computer?” and does not specify whether or not to include handheld devices such as smart phones.

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  13. Based on questions asking “Do you use the Internet” and “How often do you use the Internet”. Questions do not specify whether or not to include internet use on handheld devices such as smart phones.

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  14. Based on questions asking “Do you send or receive emails” and “How often do you check this account”. Questions do not specify whether or not to include email use on handheld devices such as smart phones.

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  15. Includes people who have at least two of the following chronic conditions: Hypertension, High Cholesterol, Coronary Heart Disease, Angina, Myocardial Infarction, Heart Condition, Stroke, Emphysema, COPD, Asthma, Cancer, Diabetes, Arthritis.

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  16. Individuals are classified as having a disability they report serious difficulty with hearing, vision, cognitive functioning (concentrating, remembering, or making decisions), mobility (walking or climbing stairs), self-care (dressing or bathing), or independent living (doing errands, such as visiting a doctor’s office or shopping, alone). This definition of disability is intended to capture whether a person has a functional limitation that results in a participation limitation and is similar to measures used in other federal surveys, such as the American Community Survey.

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  17. Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2016 NHIS.

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  18. Based on respondents saying they feel depressed or anxious daily, weekly, or monthly.

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  19. Emily Badger and Margot Sanger-Katz, “Which Poor People Shouldn’t Have to Work for Aid?”, New York Times, May 15, 2018.  https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/upshot/medicaid-poor-michigan-work-requirements.html

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  20. Defined as people who either report they are in fair/poor health or say a reason they are not working is due to illness or disability.

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