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Compare Medicare-for-All and Public Plan Proposals

Several bills have been introduced in the 115th Congress that would expand the role of public programs in health care. These proposals range in scope from broad proposals to create a new national health insurance program for all residents to more incremental approaches that offer a public plan option alongside private coverage, and current public proposals. These bills are grouped into four general categories:

  • Medicare-for-All, a single national health insurance program for all U.S. residents:
  • A new public plan option, based on Medicare, that would be offered to individuals and some or all employers through the ACA marketplace:
    • The Choice Act by Rep. Schakowsky, H.R. 635, and Sen. Whitehouse, S. 194
    • The Medicare-X Choice Act by Sen. Bennett, S. 1970, and Rep. Higgins, H.R. 4094
    • The Choose Medicare Act by Sen. Merkley, S. 2708 and Rep. Richmond, H.R. 6117
  • A Medicare buy-in option for older individuals not yet eligible for the current Medicare program:
    • The Medicare at 55 Act by Sen. Stabenow, S. 1742
    • Medicare Buy-In and Health Care Stabilization Act by Rep. Higgins, H.R. 3748
  • A Medicaid buy-in option that states can elect to offer to individuals through the ACA marketplace:

To compare proposals, select an option from one of the columns below.

Download a side-by-side comparison of these eight proposals (PDF).