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HIV, Intimate Partner Violence, and Women: New Opportunities Under the Affordable Care Act

Issue Brief
  1. Matthew J. Breiding, Jieru Chen, and Michele C. Black. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: Intimate Partner Violence in the United States — 2010. Atlanta, GA, 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/cdc_nisvs_ipv_report_2013_v17_single_a.pdf

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  2. E. L. Machtinger, T. C. Wilson, J. E. Haberer, and D. S. Weiss. “Psychological Trauma and PTSD in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis.” AIDS and Behavior. 16:8 (2012): 2091-2100.

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  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report: Estimated HIV Incidence in the United States, 2007–2010, vol. 17, no. 4. (2012). http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/statistics_hssr_vol_17_no_4.pdf

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  4. The terms intimate partner violence (IPV) and domestic violence (DV) are often used interchangeably.  While the term IPV is used throughout this issue brief for consistency, the individual statutes and policies cited may have originally employed the term DV.

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  5. Reed A.C. Siemieniuk, et al. “The Clinical Implications of High Rates of Intimate Partner Violence Against HIV-Positive Women.” JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 64:1(2013):32-38.

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  6. E. L. Machtinger,  J. E. Haberer, T. C. Wilson, and D. S. Weiss. “Recent Trauma is Associated with Antiretroviral Failure and HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive Women and Female-Identified Transgenders.” AIDS and Behavior. 16:8(2012): 2160–2170.

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  7. Andrea Carlson Gielen, Karen A. McDonnell, Jessica G. Burke, and Patricia O’Campo. “Women’s Lives After an HIV-Positive Diagnosis: Disclosure and Violence.”  Maternal and Child Health Journal. 4:2(2000):111-119.

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  8. Barack Obama. The White House. Presidential Memorandum: Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls, and Gender-related Health Disparities. March 30, 2012. Accessed, September 10, 2014.  http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/03/30/presidential-memorandum-establishing-working-group-intersection-hivaids-.

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  9. Linda E. Saltzman, Janet L. Fanslow, Pamela M. McMahon, and Gene A. Shelley. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Intimate Partner Violence Surveillance: Uniform definitions and recommended data elements,” version 1.0, 2nd printing. Atlanta, GA, 2002. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_surveillance/Intimate%20Partner%20Violence.pdf.

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  10. Linda E. Saltzman, Janet L. Fanslow, Pamela M. McMahon, and Gene A. Shelley. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Intimate Partner Violence Surveillance: Uniform definitions and recommended data elements,” version 1.0, 2nd printing. Atlanta, GA, 2002. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_surveillance/Intimate%20Partner%20Violence.pdf.

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  11. Matthew J. Breiding, Jieru Chen, and Michele C. Black. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: Intimate Partner Violence in the United States — 2010. Atlanta, GA, 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/cdc_nisvs_ipv_report_2013_v17_single_a.pdf

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  12. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Agency (SAMHSA). “Key Terms: Definitions.” SAMHSA News. 22(22): 2014. Accessed October 22, 2014, http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsaNewsLetter/Volume_22_Number_2/trauma_tip/key_terms.html

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  13. Among men overall, it is estimated that 23% have experienced sexual violence other than rape during their lifetimes. These rates are higher among gay and bisexual men, for whom lifetime prevalence of sexual violence other than rape was reported to be 40% and 47%, respectively. In another recent study 18% of gay and bisexual men reported having experienced forced-sex at some point in their lifetimes. With men too, the experience of HIV and IPV appear to be intertwined. Twelve percent of HIV positive men who reported having sex with men in one nationally representative study also reported experiencing violence by a partner or someone close to them since their diagnosis, with nearly half believing that the violence was related to their HIV status. (Sources: Matthew J. Breiding, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Violence, Stalking, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization — National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 63:SS08 (2014), 1-18.; Mikel L. Walters, Jieru Chen, and Matthew J. Breiding. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation. Atlanta, GA, 2013.; Liz Hamel, et al. Kaiser Family Foundation. “HIV/AIDS In The Lives Of Gay And Bisexual Men In The United States,” 2014.; Sally Zierler, et al. “Violence Victimization After HIV Infection in a U.S. Probability Sample of Adult Patients in Primary Care.” American Journal of Public Health. 90:2(2000): 208-215.)

     

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  14. Matthew J. Breiding, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Violence, Stalking, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization — National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 63:SS08 (2014), 1-18. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6308a1.htm

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  15. Matthew J. Breiding, Jieru Chen, and Michele C. Black. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: Intimate Partner Violence in the United States — 2010. Atlanta, GA, 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/cdc_nisvs_ipv_report_2013_v17_single_a.pdf

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  16. E. L. Machtinger, T. C. Wilson, J. E. Haberer, and D. S. Weiss. “Psychological Trauma and PTSD in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis.” AIDS and Behavior. 16:8(2012): 2091-2100.

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  17. Reed A. C. Siemieniuk, et al. “The Clinical Implications of High Rates of Intimate Partner Violence Against HIV-Positive Women.” JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 64:1(2013): 32-38.

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  18. E. L. Machtinger,  J. E. Haberer, T. C. Wilson, and D. S. Weiss. “Recent Trauma is Associated with Antiretroviral Failure and HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive Women and Female-Identified Transgenders.” AIDS and Behavior. 16:8(2012): 2160–2170.

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  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women,” 2014.  Accessed, October 13, 2014.  http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/ipv/13_243567_green_aag-a.pdf

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  20. Sally Zierler, et al. “Violence Victimization After HIV Infection in a U.S. Probability Sample of Adult Patients in Primary Care.” American Journal of Public Health. 90:2(2000): 208-215.

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  21. E. L. Machtinger, T. C. Wilson, J. E. Haberer, and D. S. Weiss. “Psychological Trauma and PTSD in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis.” AIDS and Behavior. 16:8(2012): 2091-2100.

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  22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women,“ 2014.  Accessed, October 13, 2014.  http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/ipv/13_243567_green_aag-a.pdf

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  23. Administration for Children and Families. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “The Affordable Care Act & Women’s Health,” 2013. Accessed, September 10, 2014.  http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/fysb/aca_fvpsa_20131211.pdf

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  24. Office on Women’s Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. “Screening and Counseling Fact Sheet: Health Care Providers' Role in Screening and Counseling for Interpersonal and Domestic Violence,” 2013. Accessed, September 10, 2014.  https://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/screening-counseling-fact-sheet.html

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  25. Internal Revenue Service. Final and Temporary Regulations. “Rules Regarding the Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit.  79 FR 43622. July 28, 2014.  https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2014/07/28/2014-17695/rules-regarding-the-health-insurance-premium-tax-credit; Internal Revenue Service. Notice 2014–23: Eligibility for Premium Tax Credit for Victims of Domestic Abuse. April 14, 2014. http://www.irs.gov/irb/2014-16_IRB/ar14.html

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  26. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Center for Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Guidance on Dept. of Treasury guidance on and Special Enrollment Period for Victims of Domestic Abuse. March 31, 2014. http://www.cms.gov/CCIIO/Resources/Regulations-and-Guidance/Downloads/victims-domestic-violence-guidance-3-31-2014.pdf

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  27. Kirsten Beronio, Rosa Po, Laura Skopec, and Sherry Glied. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ASPE Issue Brief: Affordable Care Act Expands Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Benefits and Federal Parity Protections for 62 Million Americans. February 20, 2013. Available at http://aspe.hhs.gov/health/reports/2013/mental/rb_mental.cfm.

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  28. Mayumi Okuda, et al. “Mental Health of Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: Results From a National Epidemiologic Survey.” Psychiatric Services. 62:8 (2011),959-62.

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  29. Gina Dillon, Rafat Hussain, Deborah Loxton, and Saifur Rahman. “Mental and Physical Health and Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: A Review of the Literature.” International Journal of Family Medicine, vol.2013 (2013).

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  30. E. L. Machtinger, T. C. Wilson, J. E. Haberer, and D. S. Weiss. “Psychological trauma and PTSD in HIV-Positive women: A Meta-Analysis.” AIDS and Behavior. 16:8(2012): 2091-2100.

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  31. Jennifer Kates. Kaiser Family Foundation. “Medicaid and HIV: A National Analysis,” 2011.  https://www.kff.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/8218.pdf

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  32. E.G. Bing, et al. “Psychiatric Disorders and Drug Use Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults in the United States.” Archives of General Psychiatry. 58:8(2001),721-8. http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/58/8/721

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  33. Allison R. Webel, et al. “The Impact of Social Context on Self-Management in Women Living with HIV.” Social Science & Medicine. 87 (2013): 147–154.

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  34. National Prevention Council. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General. National Prevention Strategy. Washington, DC., 2011.  http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/initiatives/prevention/strategy/report.pdf

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  35. Barack Obama. The White House. “Presidential Memorandum: Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls, and Gender-related Health Disparities.” March 30, 2012. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/03/30/presidential-memorandum-establishing-working-group-intersection-hivaids-

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  36. The White House. Interagency Federal Working Group Report. “Addressing the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence against Women and Girls, & Gender–Related Health Disparities,” 2013. http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/vaw-hiv_working_group_report_final_-_9-6--2013.pdf; Office of National AIDS Policy, White House Advisor on Violence Against Women, and White House Council on Women and Girls. “Update on Efforts to Address the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence against Women and Girls, and Gender-Related Health Disparities,” 2014. http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/hiv_vaw_grhd_report.pdf

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  37. Alina Salganicoff, Usha Ranji, Adara Beamesderfer, and Nisha Kurani. Kaiser Family Foundation. “Women and Health Care in the Early Years of the Affordable Care Act: Key Findings from the 2013, Kaiser Women’s Health Survey,” 2014.  https://www.kff.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/8590-women-and-health-care-in-the-early-years-of-the-affordable-care-act.pdf

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  38. See for example: Jennifer Kates, et al. Kaiser Family Foundation. “Assessing the Impact of The Affordable Care Act on Health Insurance Coverage of People With HIV,” 2014. https://www.kff.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/8535-assessing-the-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-health-insurance-coverage.pdf; Michael L. Benson and Greer Litton Fox. National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. “When Violence Hits Home: How Economics and Neighborhood Play a Role,” 2004. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/205004.pdf; and Bonnie E. Carlson, Alissa Pollitz Worden, Michelle van Ryn, and Ronet Bachman. Violence Against Women: Synthesis of Research for Practioners, 2003. Report for the U.S. Department of Justice. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/199577.pdf

     

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